Undoubtedly, art is a very multifaceted concept, which has many different meanings. Art can be defined as a number of forms (ex. music, poetry, cinema, sculpture and others), which help to express human mind, feelings, vision, imagination, etc. Also, art means applying a person’s talents, skills or abilities in a creative manner to reflect his or her personal apprehension and perception of the reality. Finally, art is an important element of any national culture, which accumulates spiritual and aesthetic values of the nation.read more
In his painting, “Against the Sunset”, Frederick Remington plays on the stereotype of the American West as man against the environment, a lonely quest taken on by nothing more than a man and his horse. His painting depicts the lone rider against a setting sun, shown by the yellow to red wash beyond the horizon. The color choice of reds and yellows instead of traditional sky blues is meant to show the unrelenting heat of the West. Coupled with the foreground sagebrush, it depicts the harshness of the climate that was fit for neither man nor beast. Remington’s painting is itself a myth of the West, leading the viewer to assume that life in the West was a solitary pursuit. He shows the environment as much more harsh than it truly was, using blurring of the foreground to again imply extreme heat and dusty conditions. In this piece, as in mch of his work, Remington chooses to focus on the cowboy and imply that the West was a lonely place where men fought the elements by themselves. Nothing could be further from the truth.read more
To draw the line between freedom of expression and art offense, it is worth to consider what can be viewed as offense. Cambridge Dictionary defines offense as “upset and hurt or annoyed feelings, often because someone has been rude or shown no respect” (“Offence”). Merriam-Webster Dictionary gives a more elaborate definition of the adjective ‘offensive’: it is something “of, relating to, or designed for attack”, or “giving painful or unpleasant sensations”, or “causing displeasure or resentment” (“Offensive”). This definition seems to be too wide as it can encompass almost every work of art. Indeed, somebody may find Mona Lisa as “causing displeasure”, but it cannot be the ground to regard this work of art as offensive. It is not possible to satisfy every viewer, and it is not the artist’s goal and destination to satisfy everybody. Art is inconceivable without freedom. Otherwise it looses expression and originality. Therefore, it will be more appropriate to regard as offensive only the works that “show no respect” at all for others’ feelings, according to the Cambridge Dictionary definition. These can be, for example, the works that offense religious feelings, or that are evidently insulting. Yet, even such works have the right to exist if they are the true displayers of the artist’s view, they only should not be displayed at public places in order not to offense others. However, the works of art that stir up hatred, discrimination, racism, and violence should be definitely regarded as offensive.read more
Music has constantly evolved from ancient times to the present era and it represents cultures of both ancient civilizations and modern society. The music that modern society enjoys now is music that is a conglomeration of many kinds of music influencing current forms. However, one kind of music has barely changed over the years and is still performed much the same way now as it was hundreds of years ago; this is classical music. In the Western World, classical music was lauded for its elegance and quality, as well as its complex musical characteristics. Aside from the way it was performed and the instruments used, there is little or no change at all to this kind of music.read more
Within the scope of modern civilization, there are periods of time which stand out for the wide reaching and impressive advances made in one area or another. An excellent example of this is the renaissance, a period of time which set the pace for many of the things that even today are recognized as outstanding. There are those who claim that the renaissance was more of a social phenomenon than a chronological time period, especially in terms of the theater, which truly saw its most formative period during the renaissance. This research will discuss not only the historical significance of the renaissance, but also other facets of the era and the role of theater as well.read more
Although there are many great art movements such as Baroque, Pop Art, Gothic, Avant-Guard, none are more striking in architecture as that of the Renaissance era. With the Renaissance convalescence to beauty, the color combination and the presence of the classical nude incorporated into a lot of the décor, it is with the Renaissance art era that art history was witness to the best possible architecture. The following essay will seek to prove this point using the geniuses of the Renaissance period and using their works as examples of this thesis.read more
In recent years, scares of contagious diseases spread and gripped the minds of the global populace because of the threat of the newly discovered bacteria and airborne diseases such as sars and birdflu. Since the origin of these highly infectious diseases was around the Asian continent, countries in the west were alarmed and have quickly implemented certain measures to prevent the possible spread of these infections. Passengers coming from Asian countries were consistently checked as they arrive to their port entries. It seems that the hard lessons learned through the whip of the Black Plague across Europe have been indelibly etched in the minds of the western people. The Black Death is the worst disaster that has ever plagued human history. This statement is attested by historians, writers, and students who study the Medieval Period. Because of the havoc that the Plague has wreaked around Europe in the 14th century, and because of the trauma it has left on the population in general, traces of its horrors could even be felt today.read more
Rene Descartes was a French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. At a time when the intellectual movements of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance had become moribund, he conceived fresh programs for philosophy and science and elaborated and defended them with great originality and brilliance. Descartes founded modern philosophical rationalism and had a profound and pervasive influence on subsequent philosophers of all schools. He was among the first to construe philosophy as providing a necessary foundation for science and rejecting the traditional contemplative ideal, to regard science as a means of acquiring mastery over nature for the benefit of mankind. In addition to being an innovator in philosophy, he was one of the creators of mathematical physics, the inventor of analytic geometry, and an important figure in the histories of optics, physiology, and other branches of science (Cottingham, 2002).read more
Regarding the diction, or word choice that Frost employs, note his repetitive inclination toward the color white in the first three lines. The spider, he describes as dimpled, fat and white, sitting on a white heal-all flower, which was a deliberate choice on his part, since heal-all flowers are in reality blue. He even goes so far as to compare the moth that the spider is holding up to “a white piece of rigid satin cloth”, much like the fabric of a bridal dress. The color white is commonly known as a symbol of impeccability, chastity and purity. His choice of words, or color, for that matter, portrays a picture of flawless serenity, yet somewhat eerie, being that in most cultures spiders are considered a symbol of evil and somewhat appalling. Also, his reference to the moth as being held like a stiff piece of cloth gives us a picture of death, since death is often associated with stiffness and rigidity. The words adopted by Frost in the next few lines become more explicit regarding the sinister nature of the scene. His usage of words like “death and blight”, “dead wings”, “ingredients of a witches broth”, all come together to lend a morbid and a markedly ominous quality to the poem. Frost then goes on to question the coincidence of a heal all flower posing as a white flower, along with a white spider, who employs the flowers assistance in climbing to the top and being camouflaged by its color, deceiving the innocent white moth.read more
The roots of Roman Portraiture hold the history of Etruria, an early city of Rome, north of its borders. The Etruscans were immigrants from the Asia Minor that went to Italy on the meltdown of Bronze Age. When they arrived in Italy, Etruscans saw themselves as the ruling class and vehemently exploited the riches of the country. Since their arrival, the influence of Etruscan style became apparent, as to the way a sculpture smiles and the so-called “quiet serenity” it portrays. Moreover, the quality of these portraits remains Etruscan in nature because of their high influence on Roman art. The initiative mark for Etruscan trademark was the fact that Etruria exported its vases to Romans and Greeks; hence, the taste became Etruscan. Piloting the emergence of Roman art was Marcus Aurelius. His definitive taste and desire for arts were more of Greek influence, as he used this influence for his political charisma (bookrags.com, 2002).read more
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