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Economics Essays

Yield to Maturity: A Bond

17 Oct 2017

A bond is a debt security that is usually issued by parties like companies or governments in order to raise funds to be used for particular purposes. A company borrows money from a certain group and in return gives assurance that it will pay the amount it borrowed plus interest on an earlier agreed time. In general then, a bond functions like an "IOU."

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Yield to Maturity: Definitio

13 Oct 2017

In economics yield to maturity (Yield to Maturity: Definition) is the internal rate of return from the flows of cash of fixed income security, especially from bonds. Yield is paid if the bonds or other securities are to be held until their maturity. Yield to maturity is a measurement of the return from the bonds. Yield to maturity gives investors the opportunity to calculate the fair value of financial instruments. Yield to maturity applies exactly to a zero coupon bond. The reason is that this bond has no interest to be reinvested. Yield to maturity assumes that all interests and dividends are reinvested. It takes also into account losses and gains in case of difference between the purchase and redemption price. Economists say that yield to maturity is a projection of future performance, because yield to maturity has to assume a reinvestment and the rate of yield to maturity itself. For example, as it is mentioned in the "Yield to Maturity" (2004) article, yield to maturity is "an implicit function that can only be evaluated by the method of successive approximations". To achieve the quoted yield to maturity is easy when a zero coupon bond is to be help until maturity. Yield to maturity is mostly quoted in terms of "bond-equivalent yield". (Yield to Maturity)

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Yla Eason and a study in Woman Entrepreneurship

13 Oct 2017

The Olmec Toys have made its entry into the highly competitive market for dolls and toys and has been able to carve out its own niche space within a short period of time. The reason for its huge growth has been due to the extraordinary and single minded efforts of its founder and president Yla Eason. Not only she belonged to the black community, but that she was bringing out a concept hitherto not seen and that is the novel idea now popularly known as the ‘ethnically correct dolls and toys'.

Yla Eason introduced the concept of making ethnically correct toys for the other races ranging from the African-American, Asian, Hispanic, Chinese and other ethnic groups in the US as well as in the world. The idea struck her in a sort of shock revelation when her three year old son Menelik shook her inner conscience when he stated that he would never be like the model hero He-Man for the latter was white. This posture indicated a negative attitude which her child along with the rest of the children belonging to the ethnic groups among the US population was growing up with. Her belief was confirmed when she realized that there wasn't even a single toy retailer in the whole of New York who was selling a prototype of an African- American super hero.

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Yield to Maturity

12 Oct 2017

In economics yield to mature is the internal rate of return from the flows of cash of fixed income security, especially from bonds. Yield is paid if the bonds or other securities are to be help until their maturity. Simply saying, yield to maturity is a measurement of the return from the bonds. It is necessary to note that yield to maturity gives investors the opportunity to calculate the fair value of financial instruments. Yield to maturity applies exactly to a zero coupon bond. The reason is that this bond has no interest to be reinvested. (Yield to Maturity: Definition)

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Credit Card

05 Oct 2017

On February 25, 2009 in Wall Street Journal Mary Pylon wrote about AmEx asking its customers to close their credit card accounts. As a stimulus, AmEx offered its clients a $300 prepaid gift. Pylon (2009) suggests that "the unusual move underscores how quickly conditions have deteriorated in the credit-card market". While mortgage crisis has become the source of major economic pressures, credit card companies still fight to survive. It should be said, that credit card holders are not given any choice; and if they do not agree to close their accounts by February 28, they will not receive the gift, but their accounts will still be closed. That means that for the customers who have sizeable credits but do not use their credit cards actively, AmEx will offer a gift in exchange for getting rid of them.

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WTO: Friend or Foe?

05 Oct 2017

In December 1999, more than 200 arrests were made in Seattle as rioters broke out into the streets, blocking off traffic, making huge bonfires, and chanting "the world is watching" ("Hundreds Arrested"). Indeed, the world was watching as televisions across the globe tuned into the WTO conference held in Seattle. Viewer attention was called on the multitudes marching for interests that ranged from labor issues to environmental degradation, while riot police made grim pronouncements for the eventual use of tear gas and brute force. This, however, was not enough as the protesters turned into a violent mob that damaged property all over the city providing some with the perfect opportunity to loot the neighborhood convenience store.

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WTO

04 Oct 2017

The establishment of the World Trade Organization has a definite goal in achieving equal opportunities for member countries to have a very good relationship with each other. This aim of course is intended to be implemented in terms of trading transactions of commodities and services. Since there is a very good chance that countries will eventually merge and partner with each other to get mutual benefits, it would just be a very good approach if a governing institution can at least become the guiding factor in conducting international purchases and sales of economic goods. In this aspect, making use of an organization’s principle will let elemental units of the system to interact more dynamically at least in terms of market sharing and profitability. Add to this some of the underlying effects which should always be monitored to help keep the system achieve its goal.

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WTO Trade Winds: A Changing Title

04 Oct 2017


Fiji has undergone a crisis across the social, economic, political levels of the nation, with many Western countries criticizing the events have unfolded. Such events include the toppling of a democratically elected president and replacing it with a transition government. A new democratically elected government has been installed once again, but there seems to be more in store.

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Early Supplier Integration Memorandum

13 Sep 2017

In order to achieve such goals, Nolan should focus on four fundamental criteria. These criteria are necessary for identifying and justifying which supplies to integrate in the development phase. The first criterion is product delivery. Scott Nolan must identify which suppliers have the least time differential in delivery time. The second criterion is product range. The input-output mix of the company depended on the simplicity of the input market matrix. The selection process for choosing industrial equipment must be both cost-effective and efficient. In short, Nolan has to choose suppliers which entail reduced operational costs. The last criterion is least price differential. The cost-effectiveness of the supply chain is depended on minimal price differential (proportional). Least price differential assumes that prices of input goods are proportionally the same within a specified range. After 1996, New Holland refused to sell additional production capacity to Deere & Company. The reason is obvious. Deere & Company would be able to expand the market of skid steers at the cost of New Holland. As a result, Deere & Company decided that it needed to regain direct control of the design and manufacturing of this potential lucrative product. Should Nolan reduce the price differential of input goods; the company will be able to expand its production capacity.

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Who benefit from forming a customs union?

12 Sep 2017

Customs union refers to the trade agreement between the various countries. The main purpose of these agreements is to exchange the commodities with concessions in the tariff on the imported goods. It is found that there are many clauses in the customs unions which benefit the exporting country although in certain situations the importing country also stands to benefit. For example we find reference to the formation of the customs union in the European Union, North America and Africa.

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