In a democratic form of government, the citizens have the right to elect the leaders who are to lead them and to hold the reins of the government for the benefit of all. This is the right of suffrage or, plainly speaking, election. In general, election is the embodiment of the popular will, the expression of the sovereign power of the people. Its purpose is to give the voters direct participation in the affairs of their government, either in determining who shall be their public officials or in deciding some questions of public interests, and for this purpose all of the legal voter should be permitted, unhampered and unmolested, to cast their ballots. As stated by one of the courts of law, the purity of elections is one of the most important and fundamental requisites of popular government. To banish the specter of revenge from the minds of the timid or defenseless, to render precarious and uncertain the bartering of votes, and lastly, to secure a fair and honest count of the ballots cast, is the aim of the law.read more
The government of a state has a contractual binding to provide security and fend for its citizens in return for their civic duties and responsibilities. The Pareto optimality defines an optimal distribution of benefit to the society as the distribution of goods in such a way that no one could be better- off without making anyone else worse – off. So it becomes the responsibilities of government of a state to fashion out policies that would be beneficial to its citizens. Since regulatory function is a key function to government; the control of means of production, especially key industries that constitute the commanding height of the economy, becomes necessary. This is so, in order to make the provision of essential social services such as electricity, seaport services, rail transportation, water provision, etc, adequately distributed among the different strata of the society. This has made some state government to take the monopoly of providing these services by establishing parastatals and other corporations with exclusive monopoly in the provision of such services.read more
As it is reported by Domhoff, without privileging a Marxist understanding of class structure of the US, aristocracy turned to be a ruling class having disproportionate amount of evident control. The ruling class has consequential partitions among themselves and this has an impact on creation of two totally different political parties, they also have a solid level of class mind and share many values. The “sociology of leadership technique” is the tool that is used for proving this hypothesis as well as learning the social-economical descriptions of top-level members of influential institution, from 1932 to 1964 years. The present book is the one that provides the most sensible analyses that I have ever read on the authoritative stricture in America.read more
"When we talk about environmental justice, we mean calling a halt to the poisoning and pollution of our poorest communities, from our rural areas to our inner cities. When our children's lives are no longer cut short by toxic dumps, when their minds are no longer damaged by lead paint poisoning, we will stop wasting energy and intelligence that could build a stronger, more prosperous America." -Former President Bill Clinton
Environmental discrimination is often seen as a product commonly associated with the industrial world in which toxic wastes are unbalancing the environmental equilibrium on one side and affecting the lives of the people on the other. ( Allen, 2001). In coming lines we are focusing on the issue of toxic releases in ‘cancer alley’ also known as ‘toxic corridor’, an area of 83 miles stretching from North Botan Rouge to New Orland. The area is home of a cluster of petrochemical factories pouring out solid waste and gas fumes in the locality. (McQuaid, 2000).
In the attempt to lower crime rates and maintain the social order, society generally uses several forms of punishment. The punishments being employed by the society generally includes societal protection, rehabilitation, deterrence and retribution. The employment of these punishments is based on the belief that the ensuing impairment is good in itself, the impairment is for the good of society, and punishment is not regarded as impairment to the criminal offender. Since punishment brings deprivation or pain that people inclined to avoid, intentional imposition of punishment by the society beyond doubt necessitates justification.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory which explains that the morality of an act is dependent on the amount of utility that an action can produce (Rachels & Rachels, 2006). Among the most notable Utilitarian advocates are John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham. For Mill, utilitarianism is equivalent to the greatest happiness principle which entails that am action is right when it tend to promote the greatest good for the greatest number (and tend to minimize the harm and suffering that an action can produce. On the other hand, Bentham suggests that the amount of pleasure or happiness can be calculated using his proposed hedonistic calculus which is drawn by calculating the difference between the pleasure and the pain.read more
Kate Chopin’s “Desiree’s Baby” narrates the story of Desiree, whose life has been turned upside-down by the same man, who gave it so much brightness. Desiree marries the love of her life, Armand Aubigny, and soon, she gives birth to a big, healthy boy. At first, everything is perfect. Armand has been transformed by fatherhood from a violent and strict slaveholder to a more lenient master. As the baby grows, Armand and others realize that the former is not white, because Desiree is not white too. Desiree does not survive the loss of Armand’s love for her, and she commits suicide, bringing her baby with her. The ending lends an ironic twist to the story. A letter from Armand’s mother reveals that it is Armand, who is actually partially African. The two ideas that come up with “Desiree’s Baby” are that racism destroys humane judgment and as a consequence, it metaphorically murders both the judged and judge.read more
It is the duty of every citizen to do the right thing at all times irrespective of what the circumstances are. In fact, there should be the natural desire in every citizen to do that which is right and refrain from doing the wrong thing. But the question that has always haunted us is how do one know what is right from what is wrong? How can one differentiate right actions from wrong actions? How do we measure our actions and decide which one is right from which one is wrong. Suppose I want to do what is right, how do I know what is right? This and many questions is what the branch of philosophy attempts to give answers to. This branch of philosophy is known as Ethics.read more
An interest group is a group of people, individuals or organizations, which are formally organized on the basis of one, or more shared concerns and challenges on public policy in favor of its welfare. An interest group can also be termed as a natural outcome of communities of interests. The common identity of an interest group is that all its members share a common desire which has an effect on the policies set by the government for their own benefit. In this case, a policy definition could be a policy that exclusively benefits group members or the society, the policy can also advance broader public purposesread more
The present war in Iraq began with the invasion of Iraq by United States Armed Forces in 2003. Since then there have been many bloody skirmishes and fights not only between the American forces currently stationed there and the remnants of the Iraqi forces but also among the ethnic and religious groups in the area. The recent data on the War in Iraq estimate the death count of American troops alone to be 2,815, while the civilian deaths resulting from the conflict are estimated at over 100,000. Economically, the United States has already spent $505 billion of taxpayers’ funds on the War in Iraq. The rising death toll and the economic burden that the war in Iraq has caused the United States makes it high time for it to reconsider its options and decide whether or not the War in Iraq is worth all of the lives that have been sacrificed and the dollars that have been spent.read more
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