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Euthanasia Essay

02 Sep 2016Health Essays

This paper aims at addressing some of the disputes or conflicts that arise due to the continuous debate on euthanasia application in the medical field and science. Besides that, the paper aims at analyzing how racial difference, religion belief, class, and gender perception affects the support on or against euthanasia. The main agenda of this paper is to address the social problem as far as euthanasia is concerned.

Euthanasia:

This simply means doctored death that might be painless or merciful. According to the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), euthanasia is to take an animal life painlessly, with devoid of distress. It is a good death that results when an individual make a choice on the fate of his death and this is after a continuous sickness or suffering. It may involve someone making an option to terminate a human life. On the other hand, one may decide to terminate his life instead of waiting for execution. Euthanasia dosage can be administered by giving the patient an oral dose, intravenous, or through intramuscular injection of the drug.

Conflict perspective:

Conflict is a basic attribute of social life and can never be entirely determined or resolved. (Roscoe Pound, 1968 pp. 113­114).From the conflict perspective, rules and regulations help the powerful to pass laws to control and reign on others.

Subproblem 1

What is the consequences and magnitude of allowing euthanasia at the social level?

Subproblem 2

Do the medical practitioners Influence the operation and administration of euthanasia?

Subproblem 3

Does the euthanasia administration solve some of the pending problems in family matters?

Introduction

The main problems currently are the disputes that arise in the process to legalize euthanasia. The main issue is whether it is ethical on human beings. These conflicts are due to racial and cultural beliefs, religion believes and legality of the matter. In the real sense, euthanasia is not the same as committing suicide. You can imagine a situation whereby your relative has been suffering for more than a decade with an ailment that is not the curable e.g. mental problem. The patient is not sane and even does not talk nor coordinate in any way. You as a family you have to provide all his medication and support knowing very well that he would not recover. To be sincere, euthanasia to some extent should be a decision of the victims and not at national level. Of course, there should be the proper legal framework to control the decision and act to avoid its abuse.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Racial perspective on euthanasia:

From the racial perspective, many regard euthanasia as an unethical practice. This is especially in less developed countries. Many people and practitioners within the medical field believe and support that euthanasia is more ethical to those victims who have endured terrible sufferings at the expense of devastating and incurable illness at many homes.

In western countries, the debate over euthanasia has centered on new look toward administration of euthanasia. Some countries judicial system and legislative have made VE an open decision for patients and their respective parents or guardians. For example, Euthanasia is experienced in Oregon. In 1994, through a referendum, Oregon constituency members accepted to approve doctor-aided suicide and the ultimate Court permitted such laws in 1997. The Bush government unsuccessful attempted to use international drug act to stop Oregon in 2001 but it failed. Some countries such as Texas allowed a use of non-aggressive euthanasia. However, euthanasia is unlawful in every state in the USA, apart from Oregon

Netherlands is one of the countries that allow the practice of euthanasia fully without discrimination. Physician-aided suicide was permitted in Belgium. If all the above nations see the need to allow euthanasia, I think this issue should be debated bearing in mind that we are living in a very immoral modern society full of evil deeds whereby abuse of technology is high.

Social problems

Actually, a choice is the basic principle of liberty and freedom to do what is morally good to an individual and the society. Therefore, euthanasia, if addressed from social perspectives, raises some of the disputes on the following grounds.

Victim’s quality of Life:

The main reason as to why euthanasia is administered is to ease the pain that the victim suffers without any hope of recovering. The soreness, pain, and suffering a person undergoes during an ailment, even after using pain-suppressing drugs, cannot be compared to an individual who has not suffered the same harm. Besides the physical pain, it is very hard for victims to forget their emotional pain of losing freedom and independence. Again, this patient might be disastrous to the parents or guardians since there is no hope of recovering. Therefore, the parents will have an everlasting problem whose end is not determined.

Economic costs and human resources:

Hospitals and doctors are not enough to handle all patients. Therefore, it is advisable to use hospital exhaustively. The energy of physician and hospital premises should be used to save lives of those who can recover instead of keeping those who want to die. This way, the universal quality of care and concern is enhanced. It is impeding to keep people alive when they cannot contribute to society and especially when they are willing to die.

Pressure:

Due to loss of hope and despair, the victim can be pressurized to take the alternatives to taking his life if he can move. Therefore, pressure is the hazardous and painful means for those who wish to die. They might decide to commit suicide such as hanging. Relatives can influence the patient through psychological pressure to give in to voluntary euthanasia other than being a financial burden on their relatives. For example, in European countries, hospital employees have a cost-effective body to give advice or pressurize relatives to accept euthanasia. An example of forced euthanasia is the one that involved Terri Schiavo case. This is extremely contentious since several proxies may assert the ability to make a decision for the patient.

Professional role:

Due to the Hippocratic code of ethics, some doctors argue that administering euthanasia compromises their roles in this field of medicine. This is apparent where there is variation in this code of ethics.

Morally issue :

According to the biblical teaching, it is morally wrong to take someone life irrespective of the situation. Some people especially religion believers’ regard euthanasia to be ethically unacceptable. In this view, they regard euthanasia as a type of murder and intentional euthanasia as a special suicide.

Denomination doctrines:

According to the biblical teaching, euthanasia is regarded a breach of the sanctity of human life. Christians argue that only the creator who can terminate human life. Therefore, no human being has the right to take his or her life without sinning against the Lord.

Viability of implementation:

Actually, euthanasia is considered voluntary if the patient admits that he or she is ready to die. Therefore, the patient must be sane to make the varied decision knowing very well the outcome.

Family options and wishes:

When permission is granted to take one's life, the family members spend much time at the bedside washing him dying slowly. This is disastrous and too emotional. Therefore, the wishes of the relatives may prevail over the patient's right to manage his or her own life since they are the one bearing the cost.

Religion perspective

According to the biblical teaching, it is morally wrong to take someone life irrespective of the situation. Some people especially religion believers’ regard euthanasia to be ethically unacceptable. In this view, they regard euthanasia as a type of murder and intentional euthanasia as a special suicide.

According to the biblical teaching, euthanasia is regarded a breach of the sanctity of human life. Christians argue that only the creator who can terminate human life. Therefore, no human being has the right to take his or her life without sinning against the Lord. The Catholic guidelines on euthanasia rest on quite a few core doctrines of Catholic ethics. This includes the holiness of human life and death must occur unknowingly without medical intervention. , some liberal Protestant denominations have offered religious arguments and support for limited forms of euthanasia. It is a forbidden for Muslims to advocate, implement or help anyone to commit suicide. Islam does not allow anyone to plan his death or to know when he or she would die.

CLASS AND QUO STATUS

Rich people who can struggle to keep a family member alive for a while do not easily advocate euthanasia. It is after a prolonged struggle that family members may decide to terminate one's life. Therefore, rich people who are most influential can doctor and control euthanasia the way they want. On the other hand, poor people who are voiceless are less influential as far as euthanasia debate is concerned. Again, little papers cannot bear the burden of keeping relatives life due to failure to meet the cost of the bill. This is due financial in capabilities. Therefore, poor people can easily succumb to euthanasia.

GENDER

Gender effect as far as euthanasia is concerned is little. However, due to emotional problems and maternal feelings, women do not easily admit to euthanasia. However, since women are the people who mostly take care of the disabled, they can easily look for alternatives especially after losing hope with their beloved patients. Therefore, women can easily be influenced by proxy bodies to succumb to euthanasia. The act and decision of euthanasia itself are not meant for causing harm. Therefore, a good effect does not result from a bad motive .Henceforth, when euthanasia is applied to women; it is intended for a good purpose. However, group-based biases and influences can lead to women declined to euthanasia.

Conclusion

In the real sense, euthanasia is not the same as committing suicide. You can imagine a situation whereby your relative has been suffering for more than a decade with an ailment that is not a curable e.g. mental problem. The patient is not sane and even does not talk nor coordinate in any way. You as a family you have to provide all his medication and support knowing very well that he would not recover. The suffering person should have the right to access voluntary euthanasia if he understands the outcome. To be sincere, euthanasia to some extent should be a decision of the victims and not at national level. Of course, there should be the proper legal framework to control the decision and act. This is because the current world is full of immorality and people are money mongers. One of the consequences of euthanasia is that people might deny others chances of survival and freedom of expression.

Reference

  1. Double effect doctrine, retrieved on 30 th October 2007, available at www.jme.bmjjournal.com
  2. Euthanasia and assisted suicide, retrieved on 30th October 2007, available at www.religionstolerance.org
  3. Euthanasia and gender effect, retrieved on 30th October 2007
  4. Euthanasia and Religion retrieved on 30th October 2007
  5. Guidelines on euthanasia, retrieved on 30th October 2007
  6. George B. Vold, /Theoretical Criminology/ (New York: Oxford University Press, 1958), p. 205.
  7. Religion and ethics, retrieved on 30th October 2007, available at www.bbc.co.uk
  8. Roscoe Pound, (1968), Social Control through the Law: The Powell
  9. Lectures/ (Hamden, CT: Archon, pp. 113­114.
  10. Thomas More (2005), torturing and lingering pain, New York: Oxford University Press.

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