Who has woe? Who has sorrow? Who has strife? Who has complaints? Who has needless bruise? Who has blood shot eyes? Those who linger over wine, who go to sample bowls of mixed wine. Do not gaze at wine when it is red, when it sparkles in the cup, when it goes down smoothly! In the end it bites like a snake and poisons like a viper. Your eyes will see the strange sights and your mind imagine confusing things. You will be like one sleeping one sleeping of the high sea, lying on top of the rigging. “They hit me”, you will say, “but I’m not hurt! They beat me, but I don’t feel it! When will I wake up so I can find another drink?’(Henderson, 2000)
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Proverbs 23:29, New International Version
The wrath of addiction is unlike any other. Speaking from personal experience, it is nothing I would wish on anyone and or any family. The abuser has no respect for themselves let alone the people around them. Family members are forced to locjk away what personal items they have left for fear these to will get pawned. Still the family continues to make the sacrifices these people make because they do not want to lose this person, instead they no their needs are put aside and the abuser becomes priority. Family members do not realize they are enabling the person when they keep giving the abuser money to buy the drugs, or spend outrages amounts or money keeping them out of legal troubles. A substance abuser is so selfish; they will take any means necessary to get their fix.
A drug, is a drug, is a drug. Alcohol and tobacco are not excluded from this, just like prescription drugs cocaine, heroin, hallucinogenic, ecstasy, marijuana, inhalants it can be abused just as easy. Many assume because both tobacco and alcohol are legal they can’t be included with in list of drugs most often abused. Substance abuse is wide spread, and it does not discriminate against the individuals that participate. However, the idea that certain drugs abused are more prominent in one culture versus another is likely.
Substance use can be dated back to prehistoric times; they were used for medical purposes, religious and social celebrations just like they are to today. Some anthropologists even argue that beer was staple before bread was. The evidence for this is found in ancient stone beer jugs from the Stone Age, and signs of intentional fermentation dating as early as 10,000 B.C. Indeed, as long as humans have known how to make their own food, they have known how to create drinks using alcohol. And as long as people have been drinking alcohol, there have always been instances of alcohol abuse, although the vast majority of people throughout history have enjoyed alcohol in moderation. Hanson, David J., (“History of Alcohol and Drinking Around the World.” Alcohol Controversies, Alcohol Problems and Solutions. State University of New York, Potsdam. [Online.])
An easy way to define addiction is it is loss of control over the use of the substance and continued use despite the negative consequences. Rather than the term addiction, substance abuse or substance dependency are used to describe clients’ pattern of behavior when working in the field of substance abuse. These terms are corresponding with the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2001) definitions and criteria. It defines substance abuse and substance dependence with varying criteria for both. Physical dependence is different from psychological dependence (addiction).The latter is often characterized by a compulsive need for a drug for psychological reasons, while the former is characterized by need for the drug due to tolerance and the need to prevent withdrawal symptoms on discontinuing the use of a drug. Physical dependence however, commonly occurs with both addiction and therapeutic use of drugs. The Diagnostic and Statics Manuel 4th Edition is the current standard for diagnosis that is used by most mental health professionals. A few criteria examples are listed for substance abuse and criteria for substance dependency
Criteria for Substance Abuse
A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one (or more) of the following, occurring within a 12-month period.
Recurrent substance abuse situation in which it is physically hazardous(e.g. driving an automobile or operating a machine when impaired by substance use)
Recurrent substance-related legal problems (e.g.), arrests for substance-related disorderly conduct)
The symptoms have never met the criteria for the substance dependence for this class of substance.
Criteria for Substance Dependence
Maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by three (or) more of the following.Tolerance defined but either of the following: ()a) a need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect, (b) markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance.
2)withdrawals manifested by either of the following: (a) the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance, (b) the same ( or closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms
The substance is often talked in larger amounts or over al longer period then was intended.
A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance (e.g., visiting multiple doctors or driving long distances), use the substance(e.g., chain smoking), or recover form its effects
Mood altering Drugs
Depressants, or downers, of the central nervous system include ethanol, barbiturates, and all benzodiazepines) (e.g. Valium and Xanax. Depressants dampen CNS activity and while displaying a weak angeplesic) effect. Slow heart rate and respiration, relax muscles, diminish pain, and induce sleep. The continued use increases tolerance, which means you need more and more to reach the high desired. The side effects include lack of coordination, impaired judgment, and development of physical dependence. High enough doses can cause black out episode, the individual is still functioning but may not remember the next day what they did. Severe intoxication can cause alcohol poisoning, which may result in coma or dath.
Stimulants or uppers, of the CNS increase chemicaland electrail activity in the brain. Cocaine, amphetmmies( methamphentamie,caffine and nictione. . The side effectsof stimulats are increased attention, suppressed appitie, feel more confidtent, which makes the drug appealing to the ones that abuse. In the past years the reports of meth use outstanding. It is an ugly addiction. Poor hygien, unfit living conditions, no food in the house for the children to eat.. One reason behind the explosive growth in Meth labs is the availability of the components. Paint thinner, gasoline diet aids, cold tablets are just a few. The combination of this drugs make the meth labs dangeruse always a risk for explosion.
Marijuana effects short-term memtoy, distorted sensory perceptionjs impaired motor skills impaired motor performance
Hallucingens in clud LSD,PCP angel dust. It can cause diaziness weaknedss visual disottratioan dreamlike images and marrd anxiety. Long term, haeavy las users have been reported to have schizophrenia for several months agfte theyu diocontinuted use.
Why do some people become addicteed and some do not? Here are 7 mopral theroes that tyr to answer that question.
Moral Theoy The cause on intial use will determine if the user becomes .addicted The major drawback of this theory is it focuses on excusivl on tindiviual charcteristces to control opr quit drug use and ignores the compounding factors of gentecs and environtmetn. The cause on intial use will determine if the user becomes addicted. Revovery focues on finking alternatinve rewards to replace the gratification of the drug use.
Diease Theroy Alcoholics Anynomus shifted responsibility away from alcoholic as morally deficend rather the ida the acholic suffered from an illness(impairment of helth or a condition of abnormal functioning). They are not so much concerned why the indiviahl choose to take that first drink, more importantly is that the individual may not know thay hae the diesea until they start using. In this model it is believed that recoveryacheived through abstitnce.
Genetic Theoy There may be two different types of alcholoism: Type I transmitted cross gender(mothers to sons, grandfathers to granddaughters) ; Type II transmit to same gender. There are marked characteristics of the two. Type I tend to have less criminal behavior, less depent personality traits, less violent when drinking, later onset of deaise. Type II exhibit more vilent behavior when drinking, show sighns of copulsince drinking(blackouts), and more dependent personalithes.
Behavioral Theory Idea that behavirod is learned and addctions are behaviors leaned and socially acquired . The first use may be the indviual is trying to model parents or peers behaviors.
Socialculture Theory Various social factors can contribute to the first use: family f=crisis, death of a lived one, social pressure, loss of job, multiple influences drive the rise in the abuse of chmeials within inner citis.
INtergated Theroy- No single thery offers a complete explanation for the cause of substance abuse.
Common Clininal Issues and the role of the human serv ic e= professional.
All counselers, whether they work in the field of subastance abuse couselihg ot in the gingeral pyscholtherapy will encounter issues of substance abuse with many of their clients. The most common issue dealt with is helping the client acjkowledge that he or she has a problem. A barrier to professionsl is the clients denial or minimization of the serverity of a drug abuse problem. Denial is al a coping mechanism it protectrs them from facing the increasing comaequnces of their behaviors. Without denial the user couldnot continue his pattern of behaivior. As a result of denial, the substance abuser is the last to acknowledge that they have a problem. s ome individual;s r have to hit bottim before they recognize they have a problem. Maybe this means they are sent to jail , wreck their car, lose kids, any thing makes the abuser realize they need help. Accepting the problem is the first step to treatment. The next step is to explore the treatment options and treatment goals. Goals can include abstinence, where the person commits to completely eliminate the ue of the drug, and harm reduction. Harm reduction can lmit the negative consequen ces of substances use , they set short term goals like decreasing frequency or quanity rather then complete abstinence.
There are many different types of treatment settings, ranging from most restricvitve to least restrivet. Restrictive refers to the degree of physical and social structure provided by the professional staff for the recovering substance abuser. Listed are seven common treatment settings ranging from most restrivte to least:
Medical detoxification and stabilization
Dual diagnosis hospitalinpaitinet(for the abuser who also meet criteria for other pshycologial problems
Free-standing rehabilitation and residtnal; programs
Temporaty recovery or halfway homes
Outpationed DUI/DWAI//DUID programs
Treatment of substance abusers depends upon the severity and nature of the addiction, motivation, and the availability of services. Some users may come into treatment voluntarily and have the support of family, friends, and workplace; others may be sent to treatment by the courts against their will and have virtually no support system. Most people in drug treatment have a history of criminal behavior; approximately one third are sent by the criminal justice system.
The cost in treatment varies with facility and type of treatment needed. insureance coverage is limited to certain type of treatment, or will cover three days rather then the thirty or ninety recommend. I feel if the insurance companies are only hindering them selves when they do not help cover a long-term stay. They will inturn have to pay for other medical care, for example an alcoholic who was refused in patient treatment twenty years later is having to have a liver transp[lant. Yes that is an exaggeration but it is possible.
Addiction, noi matter the drug of choice, effects the individual, the family, and society as a whole.
Cost to Society
new study released today by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), estimates that the economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse was $246 billion in 1992, the most recent year for which sufficient data were available. This estimate represents $965 for every man, woman, and child living in the United States in 1992. The new study reports that alcohol abuse and alcoholism generated about 60 percent of the estimated costs ($148 billion), while drug abuse and dependence accounted for the remaining 40 percent ($98 billion).
"Much of the economic burden of alcohol and drug problems falls on the population that does not abuse alcohol and drugs," said study author Henrick Harwood and his colleagues at The Lewin Group. About 45 percent of the costs of alcohol abuse is borne by those who abuse alcohol and members of their households; 39 percent by Federal, State, and local governments; 10 percent by private insurance; and 6 percent by victims of abusers. For drug abuse, 44 percent of the cost burden is carried by those who abuse drugs and members of their households, 46 percent by governments, 3 percent by private insurance, and 7 percent by victims of drug abusers.
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