Fascism and generation of 1914
Published 09 Mar 2017
A generation conscious is a common frame of reference that provides a sense of connection with the past and later distinguishes members from two different generations. What Robert Wohl meant by generation consciousness is that Europeans born between 1881 and 1900 viewed themselves as a distinct generation. This is because it is during their youth that the twentieth century was opened and their life was during the war. The life of those who followed were divided into before, during and after war categories hence those generations were different. The 1914 generation was bound together by the experiences of the war. (Whol, 1979).
The fact that they grew up and made their first ideas into the world which were issued by the war was another bond for the 1914 generation. It is from this bond that they began to live their historic life conscious of their generation. The image of the 1914 generation before the war broke was the reverse of what they feared in their parent’s generation. They viewed themselves as the doers and the previous generation as thinkers. They wanted to be strong and vital when they thought the past generation was weak and indecisive. They were couscous about everything in their generation and wanted to be different from the previous generation hence “generation consciousness” (Whol, 1979).
Fascism was described as an action and thought in which the doctrine was immanent. The doctrines come from a certain system of historical forces in which it was inserted. Fascism can be looked into as way of enforcing certain rules and regulations to certain organization and on the system of the education. According to the meaning of the word fascism, people should be more responsible and get involved in various actions with all their strengths. This would prepare people on what kind of the difficulties that they might go through in their lives. Fascism had various conflicts with the individuals, the materialism and they do not consider the happiness of the people. (Gentile, 1932)
This was because they believe that fascism means liberty of the state and the people who are living in State. They believe that no human or spiritual values could exist outside the State and there are no political parties, economic unions and the social classes whom are outside the State. This implies that fascism was opposed to socialism. The Fascist State functions could not be limited to the people who are responsible for making the law in for them to maintain peace as the liberal doctrine had it. The Fascism was the founder of the institutions, made the laws and was an educator and promoter of the spiritual life. In the year 1915 the Fasci had only the doctrine of socialism and the doctrine of action. (Gentile, 1932)
The year 1919 the doctrine of socialism had already failed where by it continues to exist after a grudge in Italy. These made all the doctrines which had been made before to be incompatible with the Fascism. The resolution of the Fascism according to the doctrines which were known as the scientific and Marxian socialism, there are so many histories of the mankind in way they were struggling and improving the development in various places. Fascism aims at making a strong and firm States and the will to exercise power and to command in a country like Italy. (Gentile, 1932)
One of the themes evident in Whols essay is the theme of change. The change that young people saw in the world of 1900 and 1914 was that it was being transformed by technology. Europeans were leaving their traditional ways. Life was becoming safer cleaner and comfortable. Death bearing diseases were declining and the engineers and the physicians were operating under new civilization. Life was becoming secure and people no longer felt distanced from each other. The invention of the automobile, motor cycle and the airplane were the greatest events of the era. It is then evident that theme of change is dominant. Revolutionary change in the prewar world is evident. There was change in political and social structures. Old empires were attacked in Europe, oppressed people were claiming statehood, peasants were asking for land and the lowly paid were asking for more theme of change was every where before the war during the war and after the war. (Whol,1979).
The themes of rebellion and politics are also evident in the essay. During prewar period the scramble for change made people rebellious. Every where in Europe there were movements on political participation. Systems of defense were under attack. Authority either exercised by the landlords, factory owner, clergymen or even fathers in their own families were disputed angrily. People were no longer satisfied with what they had and wanted more. A political movement of socialism was formed. It was to later play a major role in the twentieth century. Socialist leaders were committed to democracy and peace. (Whol, 1979).
The young generation of 1914 was also rebellious. They viewed the previous generation and thinker and they wanted to be doers. They wanted to be strong and vital and viewed the previous generation as weak and indecisive. This quickened the pace of life and weakened the authority of fathers over their sons the society became more complex. The young did not need to seek authority from their fathers to travel or do things they were determined to be a different generation from the generation of their parents. The theme of rebellion is then evident. (Whol, 1979).
According to the Generation of 1914, there two themes which had made them have the type of leadership and the government they have now. The themes were dictatorship and the policies. The theme of dictatorship could come out where by there were very prominent people who comes from the State that were very much authoritative. Dictatorship in this generation of 1914 made very many people to be able to get training about democratic ideologies and how to implement them. It denies many people the right to govern their societies. (Gentile, 1932)
The theme of doctrines or the policies like the socialism which was in the year 1914 had made many people to have a chance to explore their knowledge. The policies were implemented when the war was still going on in the country. The policies enable the people of Italy to have a better government with a strong foundation. Therefore the prominent people from the State made clearly that Fascism or a dictatorship was defined as the doctrines or the policies. (Gentile, 1932)
List of references
- Gentile, G. 1932, Fascism, Doctrines and Institution, Howard Fertig, New York.
- Whol, R. 1979, A generation of 1914, .mass Harvard University press, Cambridge