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There are different reasons that cause rape and violence in modern societies. Most of them lie in the belief that one has a right to control or punish someone, if he doesn’t obey his rules or behavior habits. That’s why rape is considered to be an expression of iniquity in power relations between man and woman or homosexuals. The reason of the following inequality in power relationships cannot be generally considered to be the outcomes of the evolution or human’s nature, but basically the societies that make woman a citizen of a “second class”.
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The problem of creating inequality and the social processes that follow social inequality are not have been studied deeply by the sociobiologists, and the best solution to the rape problem that they give is primary not to dress very attractively- and once again it looks like a method to control woman’s behavior.
The understanding of the rape problem is very essential in our society and as the specialists say the main stress has to be made on changing the nature of relationships between men and women, which’s main task is to promote more equality between them two.
Sociobiological explanation of rape is really nothing more “than a science in the service of oppression”. They point that men who are not successful in their life use rape to gain sexual access and compensate their stress as well as to show power. For the most of cases rape happens because as act of demonstration power not just the act of satisfying sexual desires and needs.
Some sociolbiologists argue that men rape women to in order to pass their genes on the next generation. But still it makes a lot of questions, which Lisa Vevett covers in her article Why men rape? :
“For instance, if passing on their genes is the aim of rape, why do rapists attack the elderly, menopausal women and children? Why do men get raped? What of those women killed by rapists - they will never give birth.
The researchers are incredibly ignorant about what happens during a rape. Some men do not ejaculate during rape and so do not deposit their semen inside the woman. This suggests that whatever is driving him to rape is not sexual arousal. Others ejaculate outside the woman.
The claim that rapists are predominantly poor young men is also open to question. Certainly many young men convicted of rape are poor. Their convictions are more the result of their being unable to afford expensive lawyers who specialize in defending those accused of rape, than their greater.”
One of the rapists explained his personal reasons for such a behavior:
"I was a comrade before. Then we were no longer given political tasks. Most of the tasks were given to senior people. I felt that we have been used by these senior comrades because I do not understand why they dumped us like this. Myself and six other guys decided to form our own organization that will keep these senior comrades busy all the time. We formed the South African Rapist Association (Sara). We rape women who need to be disciplined. They do not want to talk to most people. They think they know better than most of us and when we struggle, they do not want to join us"
As the researches show there are lots of motives that result in raping and it creates definite and clear patterns of attacks. Every attack has its own patterns that depend on the motives of the rapist and the patterns of rape mainly include such kinds of rape as anger rape, power rape and sadistic rape. The article Patterns of Rape gives the full description of the most spread reasons for rape and gives the covering statistics to their distribution.
Anger rape takes the second among the patterns of rape that happen nationwide (nearly 40 percent of all the cases). Anger rape is characterized by physical cruelty that is used by a rapist to Make his victim obey him. The offender experiences rage and anger and tries to express it on the victim in both ways physically and verbally during the act of attack. It can be expressed through his nasty and abusive manner of speaking. For such people anger rape is a means of offence, which they can commit against their victim. Those people cannot control themselves often when they experience anger and for them the weapon is sex and violence and the basic motive for such acts is revenge.
The main purpose of the power rape is to gain control over the victim, not necessarily to make harm to the victim. The sexuality that a rapist feels is way to compensate his issues of mastery, control, strength and authority. Power rapists mostly give emphasis to verbal threats to the victim and just use the amount of power necessary to control the victim and to subdue the victim, not more. It’s is considered that power rapes take the leading place in the statistics and cover nearly fifty five percent of all the cases countrywide.
Power rapists have diverse fantasies about the sexual conquests and the rape itself. They mostly believe that their victim enjoys the rape even though that the victim can resists to have a sexual intercourse. It often happens that power rapists are convinced about the sexual pleasure got by their victims and can even ask their victims for a date later. Power rapists, are often sure about nothing wrong with their behavior, they may think it to be normal and as the result they can commit a number of rapes in a short period of time with different victims.
The most rare type of rape and the one that will most likely cause death to victim is sadistic rape. Committing a sadistic rape, rapists get errection through brutal aggression, demonstration of anger and power to the victim. Sadistic rape is a result of 5 percent of all rapes countrywide.
It often involves tortures and restrains and can even be some type of ritual or can have other violent and bizarre qualities. The injures that a rapist makes to victim are mainly focused on her sexual parts of the body, also rapists of this kind use foreign objects for penetration into victims body.
The sadistic rapes are well planned and prepared. The rapist can have the idea of raping for quite a period of time making a full preparation for his future actions. The potential victims of the sadistic rape are often prostitutes as well as other women who dress very expressively.
It often happens that victims do not survive after being raped and sometimes rapists get a further satisfaction by murdering the victim.
Male rape has become of the urgent topic nowadays and it involves the events that happen not only prisons but in daily normal life as well:
“Many people believe that the majority of male rape occurs in prison; however, there is existing research which shatters this myth. A study of incarcerated and non-incarcerated male rape victims in Tennessee concluded that the similarities between these two groups would suggest that the sexual assault of men may not be due to conditions unique to a prison and that all men are potential victims (Lipscomb, Gary H. et al. (1992). "Male Victims of Sexual Assault." Journal of the American Medical Association, 267(22): 3064 - 3066.).
Research indicates that the most common sites for male rape involving post-puberty victims are outdoors in remote areas and in automobiles (the latter usually involving hitchhikers). Boys in their early and mid-teens are more likely to be victimized than older males (studies indicate a median victim age of 17). The form of assault usually involves penetration of the victim anally and/or orally, rather than stimulation of the victim's penis. Gang rape is more common in cases involving male victims than those involving female victims. Also, multiple sexual acts are more likely to be demanded, weapons are more likely to be displayed and used, and physical injury is more likely to occur, with the injuries that do occur being more serious than with injured female rape victims.
Besides rape violence that is usual among the adult, there exist a social problem of child molestation that is being widely discussed nowadays. Child molestation is a more serious problem from many perspectives than rape violence of adults. Because of the forming psychics of the child or a teenager molestation can result a deeper negative impact on his inner world and relations with the society than rape of an adult.
An adult has more options to cope with any difficult situation, because of the previous life experience, while a child is not. The problems caused by rape and molestation in the younger age, can be the reasons of difficulties in sexual life in future and fear before the private relations, marriage and having children. It’s a big trauma for child’s personality, because nearly in all the cases the child keeps the truth about being molested inside of himself and very rare tells it to parents or other adults. It’s basically because of the fears to be understood wrong, to be punished and judged. It’s also believed that children who experience molestation are more likely to perceive sexual and private relations in abnormal form that can also cause psychological abnormalities and issues that will prevent a person from living a healthy and full life.
It has been argued for a long time that homosexuals are more likely be involved in child molestation. But the statistics that is given by different sources is very controversial:
Ann Landers says the statement "Homosexuals are more inclined to molest children sexually than heterosexuals" is false. The American Psychological Association has sponsored a work that asserts: "Recognized researchers in the field on child abuse... almost unanimously concur that homosexual people are actually less likely to approach children sexually."
The report provided in the article Child Molestation and Homosexuality by Paul Cameron gives the following data:
In 1983, a survey of the sexual experiences of 4,340 questioned adults from 5 different U.S. cities reported that about 3% of men and 7% of women had sexual contact with a man before they were 13 (i.e., 30% was homosexual).
The survey of 3,132 adults, made in the year of 1983 in Los Angeles reported that 3.8% of men and 6.8% of women had been sexually assaulted while been kids. The survey reported that 93% of the assailants were male, and just 1% of girls had been assaulted by females. Also the report told that nearly 35% of the assaults were caused by homosexuals.
The survey made Los Angeles Times in 1985 across the United States, quested nearly 2,700 adults about molestation cases that could take place in their life. Twenty seven percent of women and sixteen percent of man respectively said that they have been sexually molested. Since ninety three percent of boys and seven percent of girls were molested by the same sex adult molesters the survey calculated that 40 percent from the whole number of molestation cases was committed by homosexuals.
In the recent survey made in the UK among the 15-19 year old teenagers, thirty five percent of boys and nine percent of girls confessed to have been bended for sexual contact by adult homosexuals, and two percent of boys and one percent of girls respectively, had sexual contact.
The publication on the following theme made in 1980s also gave the evidence that from twenty five to forty percent of the cases of child molestation were homosexual acts.
Besides the statistics of the molestation victims the article gives the following data about the number of homosexuals who admitted to have committed child molestation:
The survey made in 1948 reported that thirty seven percent of gays and about two percent of lesbians agreed about having sexual contacts with teenagers who were under 17, and in addition twenty eight percent of gays and one percent of lesbians admitted that they had sex with underage partners while they themselves were eighteen or older.
From the 565 gays, that answered to the survey made by Kinsey Institute in 1970 in San Francisco, 25 percent agreed to have sex with boys who were sixteen or younger when they themselves were older than twenty one.
The Gay report gives nearly the same data: 23 percent of gays and 6 of lesbians had sexual relations with teens who were younger than sixteen.
Susan Maree Jevons gives the following descriptions of the potential molester in her article Profile of a serial child molester: “ Child molester is more likely to:
Have been abused as children themselves
Be Sexually attracted to children (most can't or won't resist these urges)
Find positions where children are available (leader of children's clubs, ministries, etc., coaches, camp counselors & chaperones, daycare centers, school positions, offers to babysit for friends & family, etc.)
Seem to love children, children seem drawn to person
Seek out women with children (or friends with children)
Spend a lot of time with a child (not their own)
Seem rigid, moral, a pillar of the community (too often accusations of abuse have not been believed because the person seemed to be too good, too outstanding to do such a thing
Groom a child--create a special bond (this may involve giving child gifts, money, or even alcohol, or other 'forbidden' things that make it appear he is a special friend and creates atmosphere for secret keeping. Could also include playfully touching, tickling, etc., but moves toward inappropriate touch)
Be an authoritarian or timid and unassertive
Frequent places like video arcades
Be addicted to child pornography
Be uncomfortable in adult relationships (i.e., doesn't relate well, insecure)
Have symptoms and after-effects of a survivor
Deny or rationalize their behavior
Befriend single mothers in order to get to the children. They prey on the desperation of the woman who has no support system. They often sleep with the mother
"Roughhouse" with children--tickling, slapping buttocks, etc.--and use this playful guise when they are in fact touching inappropriately
Calling young teenage girls "sexy" or making other sexually suggestive comments “ ( available on web:http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/child_abuse_and_recovery/33399)
The basic problem of the modern society is that there is no obvious solution for the problem of rape cases. Rape and molestation cannot be totally prevented, but still much can be done to avoid some potential cases. As the psychologists tell woman have not to wear sexually attractive clothes, as well as to provoke men by their behavior.
There is a lot that can be done to prevent child molestation. Basically the people who are involved in childcare and education have to be carefully examined by the psychologists and other specialists in order to reduce existing risks of molestation. It’s important as well to include new trends in to education so that the children will be taught that it’s OK to talk about these issues with parents and/or school authorities.
The best way to escape potential rape is to act reasonably to the situation and to never provoke violent behavior from the side of the potential rapist on purpose.
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