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Sustainable Development Environmental Science

by Expert Prof. Scotiah | 16 Aug 2016

Sustainable development is a concept that is now embraced by all nations in the whole world. According to the Bruntland Report definition adopted by agenda 21 Convention, sustainable development,” Is development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs.”  Sustainable development is important. Studies have revealed that efficient and effective implementations of sustainable development enrich the world and endow it with great wealth thus sustaining diverse life forms.

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Long before the introduction of “sustainable development” concept, many proponents laid emphasis on economic development at the expense of environmental conservation. This action has resulted in mass degradation of environment and the world began to feel the impacts irresponsibility. The adoption and implementation of the concept ensures continual existence of wildlife and wild habitat thus conservation of biodiversity. This will also see effective protection of environment. Due to this concept many countries have initiate efforts to contain the problem by establishment of institutional framework and formulation of environmental regulation to spearhead the development.

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Sustainable development enhances prudent use of natural resources. The principle put value in minimization of waste substances and promotes recycling methods. Its contribution in economic development can not be under-estimated. Sustainable development through cleaner means of production and program will maintain high and stable levels of growth and employment. This will also ensure increased energy efficiency, reduced cost of living and thereby improving the standard of living.

Easter Island is the most isolated inhabitant island in Southern part of America. The occupants of this island were mainly the Polynesian community. Initially this island was not occupied by human population. It was a world of the forests and birds of great diversity before the two races of dark and fair skinned (Oho tek) invaded the island. It was covered with a range of trees, shrubs, ferns and grasses. The Rapa Nai subtropical broad leaf forest was so natural. The fall of the Easter Island was because of the climate change that came as a result of the increased drought in the area. Little rainfall thereby contributed to destruction of the forest. Before arrival of human, East Island had vast seabirds’ colonies which are no longer found in the main island and several species of land birds have become extinct. This is attributed to increased population in the Island thus clearing habitat for life forms.

Civil war and the slave raid did alter the civilization structure in the Island. It has been reported that in the 19th century, there was an increased preference of epidemic diseases that a rose due to physical contact with the Europeans as well as deportation of 2000 Rapa Nai to work as slave in Peru and the forced departure of the remaining Rapa Nai to Chile. These factors highly contributed to the fall of the East Island.

Amazon rain forest like the East Island is found within the continent of America. In contrast, Amazon rain forest is not an Island. These two regions were initially defined with undisturbed natural ecosystem yet their status and physiographic have continued to be altered due to many reasons. The change of vegetation in the Amazon rain forest can be attributed to the following factors: Increased in population in the area led to quest for more land for settlement. The government therefore opened up the forested area by creating more road network. Increased accessibility in the area attracted farmers in the region thus encroachments further into the forested area resulting in massive destruction of forest. Many of the farmers were practicing large scale farming and therefore used extensive chemicals for production. During rainy season, traces of pesticides were washed down stream. These elements suffocated the aquatic life. Cattle ranchers were also practiced in the area. There was also increased construction of dams to generate power. This greatly affected the hydrological cycle in the area. Finally, rapid industrialization came with advanced scientific technologies such as the chainsaw that saw the exploration forest resources easily.   

The way forward to ensure effective and efficient implementation of the sustainable development will include: improvement of environmental governance structures and institutions to free them from corruptions and irrelevancies; exploring the potential of information, communication and knowledge for sustainable development; bringing economic insight to environment and social issues; creation of financial alliances for sustainable trade; and establishment of global subsidies initiatives.

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