The role of Community in modern World
Published 15 Feb 2017
The society is never static and this attributes to the the fact that the changes are there in the society. These change are brought about by the natural and individual sources. That is why this call for the systematic and well structured approach to deal with these projected adversities in the society where we human beings leave. Through the study of emergency management it enables the society to be prepared in the avoidance of risks and develop good structures to be able to mitigate the severity of the outcomes from a possible risk. The community is the core of the global society which faces various forces that are coming together to shift the community dynamics in a dramatic way, in the aspect as the widening gap between the rich and the poor in both developed and developing nations. There’s population influx in relation to consumption and the environment ability to support and sustain the community.
Environmental crisis evident in the global warming resulting into floods, climatic instability, hydrological and atmospheric challenges and the socio-economical issues that faces our today community. And as those challenges persists to become unbearable the urge for change in the social life to acquire and leave a more stress life so that we can have constructive and positive impact in the world today than destructive. Therefore this dissertation looks at these unfolding challenges to humanity in their environment and how to integrate and build a healthy relationship between the various systems of the community to have resilient and sustainable community by the use of emergency management techniques. The ideas are being incoperated with the case study of Singapore in in the year 1960 when they withdrew from the Malaysian federation and were faced with economic recession and communist subdivisions. Community is a group of organisms who are interacting and shares a common environment. The more advanced approach to community concept is to mean persons that shares common characteristics their location and the extend of their interaction not withstanding (Graham John 2003) . In this sense however, resilient community uses a combination of live satellite, video conferencing, articles, locally organized community based articles for discussion and the web based resumes (Delvant 2003).
The community also encompasses the international community which includes the coverage of such terms as ecovillages, communities, student cooperation’s, residential land trusts where persons work together to achieve a common vision that is beneficial to all regardless of their geographical environment (Charles 2003) . Community also can mean a group of individuals living together in a large society who are linked with a common policy. Sustainability is the characterized process that can be maintained at a definite level therefore, sustainability of community will focus on the community development that will last and be well maintained which focuses on the values, purposes and outcomes of the community factors which includes the prescriptive values of economic, political, religion and philosophical systems that should be networked and interlinked to yield better results the community (Walker David 2006).
In order for the community to succeed in its sustainable community development it should employ the principle of transparent handling of the risk, appropriately valued nature restoration, integration of all sectors of community such as ecological, social, economical and humanistic in its policies, Equality in community opportunities and participation, continuous improvement through innovative and inventive to existing structures ofter assessing and evaluating and the supervisory functionality of good and cooperate governance (Charles 2003) .
Resiliency is the ability of an individual or group of individual or society to manage the adversity in a way that is effective and which has the ability to respond to future adversity (Gupta 2003) . The most community today in the challenging world have resiliency in the adversity of poverty, war conflicts and both climatic and parental illness resiliency is characterized by two major concepts, such concepts are risk factor which is in terms of adversity or stress life events characterizing the individual and his/her environment (Charles 2003). The second one is the protective factors that includes skills or formality and essential aspects which act as buffer and base of resumes to deal with adversities effectively. Therefore, resiliency is the balance between the risks in the environment and the capability to manage them using the available support.
Therefore, in the community resiliency builds around the issue of community structure seen from infancy to entrance to school then to adolescence to adulthood by detachment from the parents to becoming responsible adults. In community resiliency is an important concept during society transition when adversity tend to accumulate (Delvant 2003). The issue of whether the adversity will be successful managed it should be compartmentalized into separate sub-units and dealt with separately as entities in the society. These sub units includes physical and change or emotional resiliency that should be tackled well at present and the future. If that is due it yields the process of sustainable community development. Therefore, resiliency in the context of community development will be used as mechanism which the community used due to their capabilities to cope up with stress successfully and that it should have the aspect of dynamism which will contribute to community enhancement and maintenance of the key sectors of the community.
The community is composed of individuals therefore, in order to build a resilience community individuals are key factor. Individuals characteristics puts them at risks, such characters as low self-esteem (Delvant 2003). The environmental characteristics plan a threat to pose an individual to risks as poverty, neighborhood, crowding, parental psychopathology and deviated peer group.
Individuals protective factor that contributes to resiliency in includes cognitive skills, ability to plan independently, competency in ones history that lead to success in life and being optimistic and positive in life perceptions. Resiliency in individuals trickles down to familial protective factors where the individual is natured and influenced in most aspects of his life. These factors may include positive parent to child attachment and interaction, effective parenting constituted by the structure of rules and regulation within household (Graham John 2003).
Then one resiliency has been established from individuals for families then can be looked as in terms of community. Community is seen to be resilient when it responds to adversity in a manner that strengthens the community resources and the ability to manage stress in future. The factors that contribute to the community resiliency is the mutual support characterized by high level of community participation and the community collective expectations excelling and sailing through the challenges that faces it. The community responds to crisis such as environmental, economic, working hard and voluntary, equal treatment of members of community.
The key to community resiliency is empowerment factor which has direct bearing to the level of community empowerment in relation to policies and policy choices in the community (Gupta 2003) . These leads to establishment of community based programs directed to individuals resiliency such as experiential outdoor education. In order to achieve the resilient community it calls for procedures, process and principles to be involved.
This key tools includes: there are a number of reasons for a resilient community is clearly seen through positive of harmonious partnership and cohesiveness between the grassroots, natural and regional level of communism which leads to potential stability, security, social and economic prosperity and progress. Impotent measure to controlling internal conflicts which can result into external hazards for outside which created sustainable livelihood of the people in a given region. Through construction of a resilient community in operations and functions it gives support to the inter community lend for instance national political and socio-economic.
In construction resilient community key step is network connections in that, communities are built on connections which should be good to give better opportunities (Thomas 2001). This is achieved through improving the interaction of community internally and externally. Connectivity which is improved is created through interactive procedures by knowing and mending the network which starts with a network map that shows the complexity of human system the resilient community is to be built in. the network will provide the connections and relationship between the community ecosystems in business, political, socio-economic which helps answer key questions that can be based on when building resilient community (Gupta 2003) .
The networking process touches the fundamental concepts of leadership roles in the community, preparedness of the community and whether right connections are in place. the effective network should reflect the common objective attainment in the subsystem of governance, should embrace the diversity factor so that it can cluster and nodes to maximize innovation in the network. The network should have an average path length since long path length usually distorts the message when it travels for long between the two nodes. However the average path length is convenient to measure networks global efficiency (Charles 2003) . The network for the community resiliency and sustainability undergoes four main phases to build. All these phases are inter linked to each other with bridging and facilitation by the subsistence of the leadership and the society preparedness to undergo the whole process in order to achieve the common goal.
Each phase apart from the first one is built on a more adaptive and resilient structured network than the previous one so that it can be effective in tracing and tracking the community progress through the use of these phases. These phases are interconnected through evolving in the an effect that one phase should lead gradually to the next but systematical (Thomas 2001) .
The first phase is usually at the individuals level that organizes them selves which is the initial stage referred to as the scattered cluster (Gupta 2003) . Clusters are with individuals ranging from one to five a group which gives the insight of the underdeveloped communities. Persons always isolate from each other and therefore lack of interactive learning and exchange of ideas that leads to underproduction sand low rate of development which makes the community structure to remain weak. At the stage there is a vital requirement to transform the system to be able to attain higher achievements. Tis the point where the role the leadership comes in and in this regard is refereed to as the weaver (Charles 2003) . The weaver makes the critical role of establishing new interactions to coordinate the activities within these groups leading to the emergency of strong groups. After a series of coordinated events the network weaver connects the small groups to come up with the spoke and him or herself becomes the hub. The make the second system referred to as single hub and spoke.
The weaver is expected to have energy, vision and necessary skills to connect the diverse of individuals by inducing the information flow ]from and to the groups. Weaver has to establish external links to bring a bout innovation and resources in the community (Walker David 2006) . Empowerment of the groups is key to achieving the informative relationship establishment and attain the collaboration and link up with member groups (Charles 2003) . Members of the community unless they cooperate the system may not blossom into a successful relationship to have a constructive development.
These can be attained by proper of the society training which will help to identify and come up with other emerging weavers so that they can be equipped with necessary skills to run the community (Gupta 2003) . The weaver also starts to receive and develop a comprehensive data bank for the single hub and spoke network in the community, and starts to link them up with common goals and objectives and handles similar operations. The connection and linking up of the single hub and spoke will make the weaver to be the facilitator amongst the groups of the society (Walker David 2006). Once the process of the linking of the groups is successfully achieved the second phase is upgraded to the next phase resilient and sustainable community building and development which will be formed by the various single hub and spoke system. Thus in Singapore the young, energetic and visionary prime minister Mr. Lee Kuan Yew established a grassroots based movement, referred to as Peoples Association (PA). The main objective was to have all people residing in the neighborhood are proactive members involved in the activities as sports, religious affairs, vocational training.
The resulting level will be the multi hub small world network where the relationship between the the divide should be built. So that the information and innovation will be accessed by the community. The community groups can organized, collaborate and cooperate within the network. The original weaver engages in the activities and planing which model new weavers to take care of the network building and maintenance processes (Thomas 2001) . this is significant because the original leader will have deviated in its role play from the direct to indirect leader or weaver. Where he will be performing supervisory roles in the whole process and will be responsible of detecting the weaknesses of the system and strength through evaluating the performance of the current system its ope rationality and productivity outcomes to the society. Once the multi system has been will coordinated it should gradually lead to the end and ultimate goal of the structure system. By the year 1970 Singapore established 150 community centers who were managed by 1500 managers helped by 450 volunteers. Management supervised by 2000 management committees. As a result it collected total of $20.9 million community funds which was used to support this centers to promote and prevent other related risk a part from containing the two major threats of communism and recession of economy (Graham John 2003).
These system will be referred to as the periphery and core phase that comes as a result of strong and well established that have the capacity and characteristics to link up with other regional networks and perform well. The phase is characterized by the factors such as those organizations that are new to the network and work hard to get to the core, it act as the bridging to diverse the community and lastly usually have the unique resources that operates outside the community (Delvant 2003). The periphery allows the reaching out of the ideas and informations that leads to desirable innovations and development of the community that are not prevalent in that society (Gupta 2003) . While the core offers the community systems with effect of acting and implementing those ideas and informations availed by the periphery to attain practical outcomes. Thus the periphery acts as the evaluation and monitoring tool to the system henceforth resulting data analyzed and statistical in formation obtained will be used in the weaving or reweaving to match the present environment requirements. The challenge is in the aspect of updating and maintenance of the structured system so as to yield a resilient sustainable community.
In conclusion theres an need for construction of the resilient and sustainable community in the todays world as its evident with psychological, physical and socio-economical adversities. By the use of the expanded scope of disaster management it can be done through the identification of the current network, assessed and then embark on the making it effective to suit the community. These will be achieved through the explication of the conceptual link between the community aspects, resilient and the mechanisms which foster resiliency with the proper tools put in place to create the enabling and supportive environment to the processes of resilient community building. As a result will develop community which will have a good capacity and capabilities to meet the community needs without compromising the future ability of the community. Therefore its important for the community to be stable status, coexist and be cooperative to attain the objective of a resilient and sustainable community to have a viable livelihood for the community. All in all resiliency has a great promising future for the sustainable community if its based on the sound theory and comprehensi9ve research.
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