At the end of the XVIII century many European countries witnessed the surge of active struggle for public participation in the state government. Under the influence of new philosophic doctrines the possibility of such participation was declared to be one of the political rights of citizens and even extended to the point of the right to choose the form of government. In America the struggle for self-government transformed into the Revolutionary War for independence against Britain, and in France it turned into the French Revolution which resulted in the overthrow of absolute monarchy.
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Thus American Revolutionary War and French Revolution are tightly related. The concept of human rights was one of the staple driving forces for the both revolutions. Revolutionary War in America was conducted under the slogans of the freedom of conscience, liberty, equality, etc. The Declaration of Independence (1776) gained a focal role in this war. It was the first document where the requirements confirming the human rights as the basis for a fair social order had been formulated.
The Declaration opens with the words which later were picked up in France: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” American Revolutionary War ended by concluding The Treaty of Paris of 1783. Having been signed on September 3, 1783, it formally ended the American Revolutionary War between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United States of America. The key point of the Treaty was the recognizing the thirteen colonies as free and sovereign States. The Revolution in France (which followed the Fall of Bastille on July 14, 1789) also used the slogan of “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity”, (although coined during the revolution).
Thus on August 26, 1789 the National Assembly in France adopted “The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” that included the following statement: “The purpose of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression”. As we can see the both events, The Treaty of Paris of 1783 and the Fall of Bastille in 1789, became a particular realization of the perpetual strive of people for constructing their state on the principles of liberty and equality.
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