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The Green Revolution in India took place during the 60s and the 70s of the XXth century, after the period of continuous devastating hunger and food shortages. The term of green revolution means implementing some measures, directed on reformation and improvement of agrarian sector of country’s economy, which can include infrastructural development and intensification, extension of arable areas, etc. The Green Revolution had a considerable impact on Indian economy and, correspondently, on the welfare of the whole Indian nation.
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The program of Indian Green Revolution included three important projects. The first step was intensive expansion of arable territories throughout the country. The second and the most important stage was massive launching of so called double-cropping, which allowed to harvest the cereals and other sensitive crops two times a year. The third step was the introduction of high-yielding sorts of rice, millet, and especially wheat, in particular, Lerma Rojo or Sonora 64, which were genetically developed and imported from Mexico.
The outcomes of the Green Revolution brought to different economic, social and ecological consequences, as well as they evoked many different reactions of both its proponents and critics. Nevertheless, positive effects and the significance of this program on improvement of industrial agriculture as an important branch of Indian economy are rather obvious and incontrovertible.
First and the most significant result of the Green Revolution was transformation of India from economically underdeveloped country into a powerful force on the world’s arena. The Revolution started economical growth and improved local socio-economic environment. As the development of agriculture helped to produce enough of foodstuffs for own needs, India became an important supplier of agricultural products for other countries.
On this background, the Revolution advantaged to considerable improving and strengthening of the image of India in the eyes of the world’s society. In particular, economic effects of the Revolution gave opportunity to Indian government to cover all the monetary debts to the World Bank and its affiliates, which were taken for implementing this massive project in industrial agriculture (Ganquly, n.d.).
One more positive outcome of the Revolution is renovation and advancement of agricultural infrastructure in the country, especially in the sector of irrigation. A number of dams and other facilities for irrigation were constructed in those times in order to provide the fields and farms with necessary water resources. Simultaneously, new innovative technologies were launched for fertilizing and enrichment of arable lands on the territories of the country.
In addition, there is a number of positive social impacts of the Revolution, which include, first of all, increase of farmers’ incomes and reducing the amount of people, living below the poverty line. It helped Indian nation to avoid possible hunger and food crises. Also, it greatly contributed into improvement of the nutrition of people with lowering prices for food, allowing people to consume better and healthier foods, enhancing the variety of foodstuffs, and so on.
The agricultural reformation proved to be especially advantageous for the northern and the western regions of India, where the production of wheat and rice increased immensely, in terms of both quality and quantity. On those areas the Revolution favored creating of thousands new workplaces for agricultural and industrial specialists, as well as constructing numerous crops processing factories, technological plants and other facilities.
Finally, the Green Revolution played an important role even in political development of the country. The achievements of the Revolution advantaged and promoted ideology of the Indian National Congress and its charismatic leader, a prominent historical personality, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, whose influence on Indian society of those times and contribution into the country’s lasting progress is truly significant.
Undoubtedly, the Green Revolution in India became a milestone event in economic and social development of the country, which brought to numerous positive results and effects. It opened new horizons for industrial agriculture with its new innovative technologies and considerable increase of productivity. It introduced new promising markets, both domestic and foreign, and sketched new opportunities for establishing business and commerce relations between India and other countries.
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