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Seen Steer 1
Seen Steer 1
Aviation Weather FLT230
May 6, 2016
Bird Strike and Aviation Weather
According to the statistics by FAA, weather has been the source of roughly 70% of all the delays in the nationwide airspace (Prentice 96). Additionally, weather continues to play a major role in a number of aviation accidents as well as incidents. The direct accident source of accidents is human being error according to the National Transportation Safety Board; weather is a key-contributing factor in 23% of all the aviation accidents across the world. The sum total weather impact is an estimated national fee of 3 billion dollars for injuries along with accident damage, delays as well as unpredicted operating costs (Prentice 96).
Hazards that are connected with convective weather conditions include thunderstorms with severe turbulence, intense up plus downdrafts, hail, heavy precipitation, lightening, icing, shear, wind, microbursts, and tornadoes. According to the National Aviation Safety Data Analysis Center between the year 1989 as well as the early 1997, in 2 to 4 % of the entire weather related accidents thunderstorms were named as the causal factor. In addition to protection, convective weather condition poses a problem for the efficient operation of the NAS. Thunderstorms as well as other related phenomena can close airports, humiliate airport capability for acceptance along with departure, and hinder or else stop ground operations. Convective dangers as well as routes shows the way to rerouting as well as diversions that result in surplus operating outlay along with lost passenger’s time. Lightening as well as hail damage can remove the aircraft from operation and consequence in mutually lost revenues and excess upholding costs
In the 1989 and early 1997 the NTSB pointed that in –flight icing was a contributor or else causal factor in about 22% of all weather connected accidents between general aviation aircraft. Icing was cited in roughly 6 % of all the weather-associated accidents amongst air taxi as well as agricultural aircraft. The percentage for the commercial air carrier accidents in flight icing is not just dangerous, though it has a major effect on the effectiveness of the flight operations. Notwithstanding security, convective climate condition represents an issue for the effective operation of the NAS. Storms and also other related marvels can close airplane terminals, mortify air terminal ability for acknowledgment alongside flight, and impede or else stop ground operations. Rerouting as well as delays of commercial carriers, particularly regional transporters as well as commuter airlines, to avoid icing situation lead to late arrival as well as result in a ripple result throughout NAS. Diversions en route cause extra fuel as well as other expenses for all the classes of aircraft (Prentice 116).
Icing poses dangers to aircraft in many ways one being that structural icing on the wings as well as control surfaces increases aircraft weight degrades lift, generates false instruments readings along with compromises control of aircraft. Mechanical icing in the carburetors, engine air intakes as well as fuel cells damages the engine performance, leading to the decrease of power. Small aircraft routinely function at altitudes where the temperatures along with the clouds are most favorable for development of ice, making these aircraft susceptible to icing for a longer period of time. Larger aircraft are the risk primarily during ascent from as well as descent into terminal areas.
Non- convective turbulence is one of the major aviation dangers. All aircraft are susceptible to unstable motions. Non-convective turbulence do present at any attitude and in a broad range of weather conditions, frequently occurring in comparatively plain skies as clear –air turbulence. Any aircraft that enter turbulence conditions is vulnerable to damage. Smaller aircraft are susceptible at low levels of that turbulent intensity than all those aircrafts, which are big. The result s of turbulence vary from a shovering of the aircraft that is gently discomforting for all the passengers as well as crews to sudden accelerations that can consequence in serious injury as well as impermanent loss of aircraft control. Clear-air turbulence is not only unsafe but it in addition has a key impact on flight operation competence due to rerouting as well as delays of the airplanes.
Low ceiling as well as reduced visibility is safety hazard for all the categories of aviation. The NASDAC research of the NTSB statistics pointed out that ceiling as well as visibility was cited as causal factors in 24% of all the aviation misfortunes between the year 1989 and early 1997. They were in addition cited as causal factors in 37% of the air taxi accidents through the same time. Low ceiling as well as poor visibility accidents occurs when pilots who are not correctly rated or else are flying aircrafts that are not outfitted with the essential instrumentation encounter like conditions, resulting in loss of control, or else controlled flight into the terrain. The low ceiling as well as poor visibility was mentioned as the causative factors in less than 2% of all the saleable air carrier accidents between the year 1989 and early 1997 (Williams 96). Aircraft on the ground during periods of freezing or else frozen precipitation as well as other icing conditions are susceptible to the buildup of ice on control surfaces, instrument orifices, propellers, along with inlets and interiors. Aircraft that are moving along the taxiway a runway surfaces in slush or standing water at near-freezing conditions are in addition susceptible to surface contamination, even after precipitation had stopped. Still small amount of ice on an aircraft wing can augment drag as well as reduce airplane lift by a 25%; this kind of ice accumulation has been a cause or else a factor in ten commercial airplane take off accidents linking the year 1978 and the year 1997. Low roof and in addition poor deceivability mischance’s happens when pilots who are not effectively appraised or else are flying air ships that are not furnished with the crucial instrumentation experience like conditions, bringing about loss of control, or else controlled flight into the landscape. Ice blockage of airspeed or else altitude measurement instrumentation can source loss of control or else navigation errors. Ice as well as snow also has an impact on terminal operations boarding gates, runways and taxiways may become unusable. Airport operational capacities may be sharply being reduced. Volcanic ash in the atmosphere is usually accompanied by gaseous solutions of sulpur dioxide as well as chlorine. The combination of the pulverized rock along with acidic gases can significantly affect the performance of aircraft engines at cruise altitudes.
Bird strikes have turned out to be a primary for the aviation and are serious to aircraft operators as well as travelers. Bird strikes has taken place now and then where birds or else flock of birds strike an airplane or dash through the engines smashing up the aircraft and probably leading to locomotive failure. There are a number of incidents in which aircraft accidents has taken place causing bad damages as well as deaths of lots of people. The first example is the Orville Wright in 1905. Over the wintry weather of 1904-1905, the Wright brothers constructed a new airplane named the writer Flyer III. Orville first made this airplane to take a flight on the 23thrd of July in the year 1905. This Flyer III had a new-fangled airframe along with an improved locomotive with to some extent superior cylinders although it was in actual fact the same plan and had similar trivial performance as well as volatility as Flyers I as well as II. These limitations lead to a key collision on the 14th of July of the year 1905 that ruined the aircraft although from which Orville came out safe and sound (Williams 284). As from the Wright brothers, the airplane run after a flock of birds for two good rounds ending up killing one of the birds which fell on a peak of the upper surface after which if fell off wavering a pointed arc.
Three examples of weather-related aviation incidents
Although the human factors are attributed as the primary cause of aviation disaster and flights disappearance, there is sufficient evidence that supports bad weather conditions as a deadliest condition that leads to aviation disaster. The most deadliest aviation disaster that was a result of poor weather conditions relate to the Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain on 27th March 1977 leading to 183 fatalities. The disaster happened as a result of a clash between two Boeing 747 aircraft facing a collision on a runaway at Los Redeos Airport in what is in the modern day referred to as Tenerife North Airport (Verloove and Reyes-Betancort 63). The two Boeing 747 planes that crashed were KLM Flight #4805 and Pan Am Flight #1736. The KLM flight was the most impacted by the collision as there were no survivors from the flight as the Pan Am Flight had 61 survivors (Verloove and Reyes-Betancort 66). The aviation accident serves as a specific example of a weather related disaster based on the fact that dense fog at the time of the accident served as the causal factor. In the presence of good weather conditions, the two aircraft would have found it easy understanding the presence of each other. However, due to the existence of dense fog, the KLM began taking off when the Pan Am flight was still on the runaway and eventually collided (Verloove and Reyes-Betancort 67). The existence of the dense fog prevented the flight and aircraft controllers from seeing the two planes.
The second example of weather-related aviation accident refers to an incident where a chartered aircraft Boeing 707 was landing in Kano, Nigeria 22nd January 1973. The Boeing 707 plane owned by Jordan was on a chartered flight where it was carrying Muslims pilgrims on their way to Lagos, Nigeria from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia when bad weather conditions caused it to divert to Kano (Government of Nigeria 116). Together the planes fall into an inhabited neighboring which was 20miles east of the landing field leading to death of 82 individuals taking account of 15 on the ground. However, irrespective of the diversion to Kano that were aimed at eliminating the threats presented by the existing bad weather, the airliner encountered high winds at the Kano Airport causing it to skid off the runway at the time of landing. According to Government of Nigeria (118), the airliner had 176 fatalities and 26 survivors making it as the most deadly aviation accident associated with weather conditions during that time.
The other accident is the Los Angeles flight 498. According to Stich (198), in this case, despite the fact that the post-grand Canyon ATC scheme performed an excellent job of disconnecting airlines, it fall short of accounting for little confidential planes like the four-seat Piper Archer that roamed into the los Angeles visual display unit control region on the 31st of August in the year 1986. Unobserved by land controllers, the Piper slipped-up into the conduit of the Aeromexico DC-9 getting towards the ground at LAX banging off the DC-9’s left level stabilizer. Together the planes fall into an inhabited neighboring which was 20miles east of the landing field leading to death of 82 individuals taking account of 15 on the ground (Stich 198). The FAA after that required little aircraft toward the inside control areas to make use of transponders, which are acknowledged as electronic devices that show position and height above sea level to controllers. In addition, airlines were considered necessary to have TCAS II accident prevention systems, which perceive potential collisions with additional transponders, outfitted aircraft as well as counsel pilots to climb or else drive in response. Since that time, no small plane has had a collision with an airline in departure within the U.S.
Considering the impacts of weather conditions on aviation, there is needed to improve safety while trying to maintain schedule honesty given that airlines are reliant upon correct weather information. For instance, use of weather information as well as forecasts should be highly considered as an accurate measure for guidance. According to Gillman et al. (414), The National Weather Service offers forecasts dealing with the fatal as well as enroute region should be observed as the basis for conclusions made by most airlines. Up to this moment, accurate information regarding thunderstorms, the position of lightning and the commencement of snowstorm or else ice at a landing field, warmth as well as pressure statistics should be considered as vital measures for safety as well as well-organized operations. NWS charts illustrating this information are disclosed in all flight send offs as well as airport performance headquarters. Reports of genuine conditions from airports more and more depend on Automated Observing Systems. For this reason, it is important that accounts from these systems are exact from a representative of the weather conditions at an airport. Any failure of the trustworthiness of this scheme accounts by means of users can be a representative to fuel loads as well as flight interruptions. After ensuring a protected weather atmosphere, it is appropriate to meet their timetable as regularly as possible. According to Prentice (243), there is a need of performing in an appropriate manner as well as on precise weather information. To lend a hand in mitigation of the interruption to airline operations as a result of weather, a number of airlines have developed complicated computer line-ups. The benefits on the improvement cost despite the fact that they are tricky to reckon are noteworthy. These systems are competent of displaying the down lie consequences off-schedule operations assisting the airline planners in establishing the most favorable resolution to accomplish an on-schedule airline as rapidly as probable following an unfavorable wether occasion.
The airlines encompass a very actual need for accurate forecast of a number of limitations including those measures that have been advocated following different airplane crashes. Information regarding the arrival of thunderstorms at a given focal point airport particularly those which contain destructive winds or else hails is considered necessary at least at each four hours before time to facilitate airline planners to re-schedule air travels. Stich (313) asserts that, when dealing with a snowfall, tremendously small temperatures, unusually high demands or else high exterior winds, the direct time broadens to eight hours to consent to time for individual recruitment. Timing of the onset of a humid storm is required almost a day before with an aim of protecting corporation resources. For instance, stating at an airplane at an airport securely far from such a storm could be a measure that can work out well as a safety measure for avoiding crash as a result of these factors. Accurate information regarding upper air circumstances vital for flight prearrangement is needed at a great deal in 18hrs before a flights exit. A subjective illustration for the latter comes after. There should be high consideration of an international flight for instance from Chicago all the way to Tokyo (National Transportation Safety Board 89). In case higher winds guesses are such that the airplane has to encompass additional fuel, the amount of travelers might have to be lessened. With an aim of protecting these travelers on flights to similar destination, they have to be re-routed to a diverse exit airport like San Francisco. Given that traveler prearrangement planning to fly from Chicago all the way to Tokyo to start their journeys flying from, they have to be informed in time to get them from Detroit all the way to San Francisco to grab that flight. With an aim of improving these circumstances to be thriving, planning has to start at least 18hrs before the start of Chicago all the way to Tokyo flight.
Gillman, Lawrence M, Sandy Widder, Michael Blaivas, and Dimitrios Karakitsos. Trauma Team Dynamics: A Trauma Crisis Resource Management Manual. 411-416, Print.
Government of Nigeria. “High Court of Kano State, Kano Judicial Division.” Journal of African Law 17.01 (1973): 116- 118. Print.
National Transportation Safety Board.Safety Study: Risk Factors Associated with Weather-Related General Aviation Accidents. Washington: National Transportation Safety Board, 2005; 89 Print.
Prentice, Robert A. Aviation Weather Services Handbook: Federal Aviation Administration and National Weather Service. New York, NY: Skyhorse Pub, 2010; 56- 123, 243. Print.
Stich, Rodney. History of U.s. Aviation Disasters1950 to 9/11. New York: Silverpeak Publ, 2010; 198-203, 313. Print.
Verloove, F., and J. A. Reyes-Betancort. “Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain).” Collectanea Botanica 30.0 (2011): 63-78. Print.
Williams, Julie H. Wings of Opportunity: The Wright Brothers in Montgomery, Alabama, 1910 : America’s First Civilian Flying School and the City That Capitalized on It. Montgomery, Ala: NewSouth Books, 2010; 96, 284. Print.
Bird Strike and Aviation Weather. (2022, Feb 01). Retrieved from https://essaylab.com/essays/bird-strike-and-aviation-weather
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