Report on Human Factors in Aviation



Report on Human Factors in Aviation





Abstract 3
Introduction 3
Part 1: The Pavlovian perspective 4
Effective human factor program 4
Part 2: The CASA perspective 6
Regulation 6
Crew Resource Management (CRM) 7
Part 3: Court verdict on Pavlovian airlines operations 8
Conclusion 10
Reference…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Report on Human Factors in Aviation
In recent times, the aviation industry has become a mainstream form of transport. Due to this many guides and regulations have been put in place to make this kind of transportation safe and efficient. Human factor programs have been developed to try and eliminate errors caused by crews thus reducing the number of accidents. However in this report, Pavlovian airlines an airline looking to operate in Australia doesn’t have a Human Factor program, due to this CASA has filed an injunction seeking to stop Pavlovian airlines from conducting its services in Australia due to the risk both passengers and crew of Pavlovian airlines will be exposed to. Human factors are put in place to work in reducing the impact and occurrence of human error in aviation systems thus improving human performance. Trained specialists are used to gathering relevant empirical data that is used in forming solutions that may occur because of human error in the Aviation industry. Thus, in this paper, the pros and cons of human factors are mentioned about the case of Pavlovian airlines vs. CASA. A judgment is also arrived based on the arguments provided by both sides.
The aviation industry has been aloft in the past century. Ever since the invention of the aircraft, the industry has seen immense and rapid changes aimed at making this mode of transport safe and efficient. Airlines have grown over the years, and now this mode of transport is mainstream, and many people use it to travel the world. For such a complex mode of transport to flourish, certain rules have been set up by different bodies in order to monitor and maintain this mode of transport. The aviation industry has also undergone drastic changes aimed at making the industry better. Human factors are an important part of the aviation industry. They are put in place in order to promote safety in the industry. This is done by working to reduce the impact and occurrence of human error in aviation systems thus improving human performance (Meister, 1999). These regulations regarding human factors in the airline industry are set up by specialists in this field; such specialist has broad knowledge on the design and evaluation of aircraft systems. They also have extensive knowledge in regards to aircraft operations, procedures, pilot performance and guidance. Using this knowledge they are able to develop procedures and regulations that support the certification of planes, production approval after they are manufactured and the continued credibility of aircraft in use. Human factors also take into account the certification of pilots, mechanics and all other personnel who work in the aviation industry. We see that Pavlovian airlines have negotiated with the government of Australia to operate its airline in Australia. The downside to this agreement is that Pavlovian Airline does not provide a human factors program for its crew and other employees. Other airlines within the country contend that due to the unavailability of a human factor program for Pavlovian airlines it would pose an unacceptable risk for the safety of the organization’s employees and the general public. In this report I will act as a representative for Pavlovian airlines and develop a valid argument to support claims to operate in Australia, I will also serve as a representative for CASA and develop a compelling argument that Pavlovian airlines operating without a human factors program will pose a significant risk to the airlines crew and passengers. Lastly, I will act as a high court judge and determine whether CASA has enough regarding evidence to enable them to proceed with an injunction preventing Pavlovian airlines from operating in Australia.
Part 1: The Pavlovian perspective
Effective human factor program
As a representative for the Pavlovian airlines, I’d state that having being offered an opportunity to operate in Australia was a great honour to our airline. This airline has been operating without a human factor group since its inception. We take great care of our airplanes and crew in the most professional and efficient manner possible. Even though we understand that human factors are an important aspect of any given company, we see that it has adverse effects too. As much as we can account for human behavior at the workplace thus try to build our systems in a manner that makes them much easier to interact with. Many a time we cannot depend on this for the effective running of a company. Human behavior cannot be predicted as such thus more and more errors lead to catastrophic accidents in the aviation industry; errors such as skill-based errors, which are errors that occur when an operator is executing a well-trained act. Studies conducted show that this occurs due to people failing to prioritize their attention, checklist errors or having bad habits (Oviatt , 2000). According to my understanding, such attributes in human behavior such as failing to prioritize attention to a repetitive given task is paramount to an employee being neglectful thus they do not deserve to be in employment. This is one way in which Pavlovian airlines do not need a human factor program in order to operate in Australia. By use of the set guidelines by the aviation industry I firmly believe that our airline will be fully functional and safe as compared to other airlines because of the level of quality and safety we provide.
Even though our airlines budget is a little tight right now, I’d like to state that having a human factor program is not essential to our operation in Australia. We are an international company, and our standards are accepted all over the globe. Human factors can not compensate errors such as decision errors, where an individual behaviors or actions proceed as intended but the chosen plan proves to be inadequate thus resulting in an unsafe condition (Sarter , 2002). These errors are usually attributed to exceeded ability, rule-based errors and lack of using the appropriate procedure in taking action. The perceptual error is also another type of error that is covered by human factors. We see that perceptual errors occur when an operator’s sensory input is degraded, and a decision is made upon faulty information. Such errors can be avoided by employing skilled and able labor and conducting various rigorous tests in set time intervals to ensure that they are in top shape to continue working for the airline. In short am reiterating that you do not need to have a human factor program to be able to function efficiently. The set guidelines in the aviation industry have evolved over time, and it is essential for any operational airline to be in line with them otherwise risk running into disasters (Wickens, Lee, Liu& Gorden 1997). These set industry standards take into account every major factor involved in the operation and maintenance of aircraft thus making our airline safe to use. At no moment will our passengers and crew be exposed to risk thus making sure that at all times we are abiding by the safe standards set.
To add to this, we get to see that human factor programs are based on the assumption that their primary goal is to impact positively on the entire aviation fraternity. Workforce management and staffing decisions that are made in relation to human factors program set in place by companies are critical, and if at any moment data and information provided prove not to be right, then the airline is in a big mess. We see that the standards set by human factors program in most circumstances surpass expectations, thus making them unsuitable for an airline company with many risk factors associated (Wickens, Lee, Liu& Gorden, 1997). With improved airline productivity as the primary objective of human factors programs, addressing the root causes that impact customer satisfaction is imperative to success. The most frequently cited root cause for tragic events involves skill mix, fatigue and lack of competency assessment.
Part 2: The CASA perspective
As a representative of CASA, I have to say that allowing Pavlovian airlines to operate in Australia will cause unnecessary risk to our passengers and nations. In recent times, human error has been attributed to more than 70 percent of commercial airline crashes. This is a significant number of losses that should not increase. While most of these errors are mostly attributed to flight operations, human error has also become a huge factor in maintenance practices and air traffic management thus causing commercial planes crash. The adopting of a human factor program will infuse professional work with engineers, mechanics and pilots who will, in turn, apply the latest knowledge about the interface between human performance and the planes operating mechanisms thus help operators of this aircraft improve safety and efficiency in their daily operations. During this period in which the aviation world is experiencing rapid advancements in technology, the people in charge of operating these aircraft are accused of ensuring the success and safety of the airline industry. The crew in charge of running Pavlovian airlines should continue to be knowledgeable, flexible, and efficient and dedicated thus exercising good judgment whenever they operate commercial airlines. On the other hand in order for Pavlovian airlines to remain in operational in a competitive market, they have to invest frequently in training, equipment and aircraft systems that have long-term implications. Because of this fast change taking place in the industry, airlines can no longer rely on experience and intuition to guide decisions relating to human performance in the industry (Wickens, Sandy, & Vidulich, 1983). Instead, every airline needs a sound and scientific strategy to be used in order to assess its crew performance implications in design, procedures and training the very same way designing of an aircraft wing requires sound aerodynamic engineering.
Crew Resource Management (CRM)
I would also like to state that improving crew performance can help the aviation industry reduce the commercial planes accident rates which in most cases are catastrophic. Human factor programs focus on making human-airplane interfaces that are operational friendly and developing procedures that are suitable for both maintenance technicians and flight crews. Human factors group also continue to study an airline’s operations thus increasing the usability of the aircrafts in place in terms of reliability and comfort. In addition to this by having a human factor program, Pavlovian airlines will be able to have human factors specialist who in turn will participate in analyzing operational safety and coming up with new methods through which operators can better manage human error. In the case of crew interaction capability, flight crew communications rely on the use of visual, audio and tactile methods. All these modes of communication have to be used correctly during a flight. By being able to make use of Human factor programs, Pavlovian airlines can completely eliminate the risk of running into disasters due to miscommunication thus saving many people’s lives.
With human factor programs in place at Pavlovian airlines, we see that certain attitudes and behaviors have to be influenced on the crew and passengers in order for the airline to operate smoothly and efficiently.By taking this approach, Pavlov airlines will have the interest of its crew and passengers at heart just like all registered airlines in Australia. Human factor programs regulations are factors such as helping organizations embed human factors principles thus identify specific human factors issues that need to be addressed by safety management systems. By doing this, airlines such as Pavlovian airlines will make sure that both its passengers and crew are safe when in flight. Pilot performance is also an important regulation. These basically includes reviewing the life cycle of pilot training, in doing these companies are able to develop methodologies for assessing and standardizing the caliber of flight examiners and pilots across Europe. Engineers are also an essential part of an airline because they take part in maintenance and repair of aircraft. Adequate training is needed for one to embark on repairing aircraft. Knowledge on how to repair the plane should be satisfactory and constantly adapting to the changing trends. Another regulation on human factors is the fact that engineer performance is monitored closely to reduce the impact of maintenance errors and in turn be able to come up with more effective safety interventions thus improving the safety standards in general.
Fatigue is a major issue in the running of airlines. Airline crews’ live vigorous lives thus are bound to end up with fatigue at one point or another. The regulations state that Airlines should have human factor programs that deal with research on how to look at and test the effect of fatigue on performance thus develop an effective and simple fatigue assessment tool. This, in essence, will allow Pavlovian airlines to better manage fatigue risks hence making it safer.
Pavlovian airlines will not be in line to carry out its operations in Australia due to the fact that it will be putting a lot if its crew and passengers at risk. In a rapidly evolving industry we get to see that technologies are evolving at a fast rate. This rate is faster than the rate at which we can measure the impact these new technologies have on workers (Wu, 2011). Thus, it is important that human factor programs be put in place in order to make sure that workers and their workplaces harmonize thus making airlines safer unlike the proposal not to have a human factor program in place.
Part 3: Court verdict on Pavlovian airlines operations
As a member of the high court of Australia tasked with determining whether CASA has sufficient evidence to proceed with an injunction to prevent Pavlovian airlines from operating in Australia I have to say that after carefully listening to the two parties. Both companies have cases to argue. Human factor programs have not been around for long. However, as times rapidly change and with it various aspects of the aviation industry, we get to see that various structures need to be put in place to safeguard this mode of transportation. Human factor programs are important in any given airline because it is a science that discovers and implies information about human behavior, limitations, abilities and other characteristics found in human beings to the design and evaluation of products, systems, jobs, tools and the environment for enhancing productive, safe and comfortable human use (Wu, 2011). In the aviation industry, we get to see that industry professionals who have worked in the aviation field for many years apply their human knowledge on the airlines crew perceptual and cognitive processes in a bid to improve how the systems perform and develop more effective human-machine interfaces. We have been shown that the focus of human factor programs is on the person as the central component in their environment. Because of this, we see that risks are reduced in the industry.
I would also agree with Pavlovian airlines side in regards to the fact that the aviation industry has set down standard protocols to be used in the running of any airline which are up to date and operational (Kuusela & Paul, 2000). Even though these regulations are in place, I don’t think they lack loopholes thus it is important that human factors programs are put in place so that they may countercheck against such errors thus making the airline safe to travel in all aspects.
Human factor programs are important due to the fact that they play an important role in the safe operation of an airline. With a large crew and personnel that cannot be monitored at all times, we see that human factor programs design products for improved safety and ease of use by the airline thus making it less prone to human error mistakes. Human factor programs in aviation also help designing workstations and developing procedures to increase productivity and reduce fatigue. In this manner, they are able to improve work environments and make them more acceptable to the employees failure to do this might result in distress which in turn comes down to errors which prove fatal in the aviation industry.
In addition to this, we see that CASA puts forward its claims with proven scientific records which show whatever happens in case certain rules and regulations are not adhered to due to carelessness or human error. In the case of a mechanic who isn’t sure of how to repair a part of the plane. Such a person should be taught that at no particular moment should they perform actions they aren’t sure of. This can only be done through human factors programs that are built to tackle such issues. If in any case such a condition has not been dealt with and the proper protocol for a certain procedure has not occurred then chances are high that errors will be made which will be costly for the airline in the end.
To the best of my understanding, I find that CASA has enough evidence to proceed with an injunction against. The information provided by Pavlovian airlines has not been sufficient enough because of the many discrepancies that were left unattended to. Air transport needs thorough supervision and management in order to function effectively, and a little slack could prove to be disastrous. Thus, it would be encouraging if Pavlovian airlines took this up and made their airline more secure thus not risking the lives of their crews and passengers.
Ever since the advent of the term human factors, it has grown increasingly popular in the aviation industry due to the fact that as the industry grew more people realized that human error accounted for most of the accidents, rather than mechanical failure (Thomas, 2007). Human factors programs involve gathering information about human abilities so that they may be integrated with machines to find how best to work with this machines. This, in essence, provides much more user friendliness between the crew and the aircrafts thus reducing chances of accidents happening.
In conclusion, it is important to have human factor programs in the aviation industry due to the many benefits it brings with it. For essence Human factor programs serve to reduce risk thus making travel be air safe. Even though the Pavlovian airline has a tight budget, they should get a human factor program in place for them to be able to operate in Australia, considering all other major airlines had acquired one in a bid to keep people traveling by air safe. Thus, this airline should be no exception, even though standard regulations are in place, to completely minimize the error it is important that human factor is considered thus leading to less risk associated with crew and passengers when the airline is operational. By the use of Human factor programs, one can be able to improve human performance thus help the industry reduce commercial aviation accident rate. In cases where lack of awareness may take over during a repair, thus lack of common sense due to the repetition of the same task over and over again. This can be rectified through human factors where mechanics check each other’s works so that in the case of a fault in the repair they may notice it and rectify what would otherwise have been a disaster. Thus, it is imperative that human factors be considered in airlines because of the positive role they play in making sure passengers using this means of transport are safe.

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