The Code Dna (Nucleic Acids)

Running Head: THE CODE DNA 1


The Code DNA

1.0 How does genetic information result in the formation of a protein?
DNAs or nucleic acids are long linear polymers that carry information which can be passed from a generation to the other. Specific genes must undergo two distinct stages on their way to becoming proteins, transcription and translation. These molecules which are macro in nature are made up of large numbers of nucleotides which are linked and made of at least a sugar and a base and a phosphate (Zhu et al, 2016). The sugars and the phosphates form the backbone as the bases vary among four different types which are responsible for the storage of genetic information along the chain of the nucleic acid. The DNA does not directly template the protein synthesis but instead the genes give a specification of the proteins kinds made by the cells. What starts is the process of transcription of the DNA to RNA then the RNA is further translated into the specified protein with the information flow being dependent of the code of genetics.

2.0 Define and explain two specific types of mutations
Mutation is basically a change that is permanent in the DNA’s sequence caused by either external or internal factors which are also called endorgenous factor or in some cases by the presence of errors in the cellular machinery. The exogenous factors include factors in the environment like sunlight, smoking and radiations while the endogenous or the internal factors are the cases of errors in the course of the replication of the DNA (Zhu et al, 2016). The major two types of mutation are missense and nonsense mutations (Ruwald et al, 2016). The missense type occurs when one base of the DNA pair produces another made by a gene when substitution of an amino acid takes place while the nonsense mutation occurs as result of a change in the base of one DNA’s pair but instead of substitution by the single amino acid for another one, there occurs signaling of the DNA sequence that has been altered prematurely to stop the protein building by the cell (Li et al, 2016).

Figure 1: Missense mutation

Figure 2: Nonsense mutation
3.0 Describe five methods in which cancer can be prevention
Cancer prevention is defined as the necessary action that is taken or undertaken to have the chances of obtaining cancer reduced (Escobar et al, 2016). Cancer is a series of many diseases that are related and not just one disease.

Chemoprevention is in the frontline in the prevention of cancer and refers to the use of various substances, natural or laboratory made to have the cancer risk lowered or its recurrence prevented. The testing of different chemopreventive agents is usually done onto the people who are at a higher risk or prone to some types of cancer either as a result of lifestyle factors or even history of the family (Escobar et al, 2016). For instance, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) like tamoxifen and reloxifene are able to significantly cause a reduction in women’s risk of having breast cancer. In addition to this, aspirin is also under study for reducing the cases of colorectal cancer while finasteride and dutasteride are able to significantly lower prostate cancer risk.
Avoidance of cancer causing things
The risk factors like chemicals in the environment which include asbestos, tobacco, cancer clusters, various foods like sweeteners that are artificial and chemicals in meat, genetics, hormones such as contraceptives for pregnancy prevention, radiations, psychological stress and obesity are well known to be risk factors for the disease and therefore id avoided cancer will as well be prevented (Escobar et al, 2016).
Early finding of precancerous conditions
These are basically the conditions that with time can become cancer and their nature is dependent on the type of cancer (Escobar et al, 2016). These conditions which may turn out to be cancer should be treated earlier so that the real condition is prevented from occurrence.
Frequent screenings
Screenings help in detection of some precancerous conditions at their earliest stages which can be treated earlier before the number of malignant cells gets bigger and the cancer even finds its entry into the body. Screenings for colon cancer are highly responsible for the prevention of disease from occurring as the affected are in a position to be treated earlier (Escobar et al, 2016).
Adherence to cancer prevention diets and lifestyle
Diets rich in antioxidants found especially on the Mediterranean exert measures of prevention against cancer to a larger extend. Geographical positions, the types of diet common as well as the people’s lifestyle’s are highly responsible for some measures in the prevention of cancer. In addition, fruits and vegetables also reduce the risks of cancer and therefore recommended for each meal.
4.0 The risk associated with genetic engineering
Potential harm to human health
The growth and consumption of genetically modified organisms posses a great risk to the people’s health mainly because of the new traits and characteristics that have been introduced in the organisms or the crops which have been genetically engineered.
Potential environmental harms
Due to the increased production of these genetically modified crops, the real environment has been endangered as more and more chemicals get into the soils causing pollution and other hazards like increased weediness

Creation of New and worse viruses
The creation of crops that are tolerant to viruses is a major application of the genetic engineering technology and this could lead the combination of the created viruses and the incoming crop viruses leading to something dangerous that could even affect a wider range of hosts and causing more destruction than could have been without the created virus.
5.0 Viruses are the perfect carriers of healthy genes in the field of gene therapy. Why?
Gene therapy is defined as the process of inserting a gene that is functioning into a patient’s cells with the aim of correcting an error that is inborn and metabolism in nature or even provision of a new function in the cell where it is introduced. Viruses are the best vectors since they are able to invade various cells as a part of an infection process that is natural. In addition, viruses exhibit specific relationships with the cells they invade since they have the ability to take control of some cell types or tissues in some organs that are specified and therefore making them the perfect carriers of vectors.

Escobar, G., Moi, D., Galea, R., Sherif, M., Ranghetti, A., Naldini, L., & Mazzieri, R. (2016). Abstract B181: Genetic engineering of tumor-infiltrating monocytes to inhibit primary and metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Immunology Research, 4(1 Supplement), B181- B181.
Li, K., Turner, A. N., Chen, M., Brosius, S. N., Schoeb, T. R., Messiaen, L. M., … & Korf, B. R. (2016). Mice with missense and nonsense NF1 mutations display divergent phenotypes compared to NF1 patients. Disease Models and Mechanisms, dmm-025783.
Ruwald, M. H., Parks, X. X., Moss, A. J., Zareba, W., Baman, J., McNitt, S., … & Lopes, C. M. (2016). Stop-codon and C-terminal nonsense mutations are associated with a lower risk of cardiac events in patients with long QT syndrome type 1. Heart Rhythm, 13(1), 122- 131.
Zhu, Y., Liang, G., Sun, B., Tian, T., Hu, F., & Xiao, Z. (2016). a novel type of self-assembled nanoparticles as targeted gene carriers: an application for plasmid DNa and antimicrorNa oligonucleotide delivery. International journal of nanomedicine, 11, 399.

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