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RUNNING HEAD: 30 PAGE FILM LOGG OF VARIOUS MOVIES 28
30 PAGE FILM LOGG OF VARIOUS MOVIES
“What is Classical Cinema?”
Introduction and Overview
Classical Cinema is viewed in the manner at which movies were first being created and the styles that were incorporated in movies at that time. Early filmmakers focused more on the then cinema style whereby their aim was to make the audience have little to think about the arrangement of the film itself as well as the plot it has. This type of movie style was first introduced in the early 1900s when smaller movies companies at that time were just beginning to shape the industry (King, 56). The Golden Period of movie making was in 1930. This was just after the movie process was established in such a way that studios at that time were able to film quickly with the aim of creating a least two films in a week (King, 56). The division of tasks was then proposed to ensure quick making of the film itself.
The distribution of responsibilities was such that, it started from the main people at the top of the studios to the financiers who were to fund the films from New York. These were the main people who controlled all the operations of the movie. They were the ones who decided on the actors who were to act certain scenes to the script itself on whether it needed adjustments or not. The aim of this structure was such that, there were few errors made and ensure that the filming plan went according to the schedule made. Most scenes and film shooting were done in the studios using various styles such as large sets in order to imitate and give an illusion of the real world.
The Classical Cinema style paid most attention to the actors who are the characters of the movie played. The story line at that time was obvious whereby the main character went through a series of difficulties before coming out triumphant in the end. This kind of approach to movies at that time had only one purpose, and that was to motivate the actors to get engrossed into the whole story line. The whole reason for these kinds of story lines was to give the audience a sense of satisfaction with the watching of the film and to look forward to watching others that will be aired next time. The actor was the main attraction to the whole film, and the way he/she acted that particular character affected the audience’s feelings. A character such as the heroes and villains were distinguished clearly from the beginning of the film (Bordwell, 24).
In addition to this, the whole set up of the movie was made to make the viewers have a realistic perception of the movie as a whole, and this was made through the use of mise-en-scene. This is a collection of different costumes, decorations, and lighting befitting the attitude of the actors. This helps in creating a particular time in history but alternating the scenes to fit a particular period. Some of the assets used to portray a particular era in the film were the type of language used in it so as to create a realistic picture of the film and give the audience an image that, that is how things were in that era (Bordwell, 24). The use of different lighting was then used to set a particular mood in the scene as well as emphasize the deep character of the actor from three different perspectives.
Classical cinema is quite difficult to define but however the styles that were previously used for the development of films are what distinguishes classical cinema to contemporary cinema. The styles are what gave the plot of the film the feeling of reality in the actor and settings regarding the era of the movie. They were used to create a positive viewer experience especially when the plots of the films were obvious and endings were expected to always end positively. The audience is unaware of the plot and the construction of the film, so it was the film producer’s role to ensure that the audience is satisfied with the film as a whole.
Cinema and Style (Terminology, Realism, Classical Cinema, Formalism)
The strive to show the realistic sense of the world was what filmmakers have strived to portray since the 1920s. The use of realism started by the creation of documentaries trying to show what happens in the actual world. It is unlike human beings to believe in the realistic effort of the movie especially if there is too much lighting or too much graphic emphasis because in make one feel like it is all fake. This as a result of unprofessionally done films that have been filmed using natural light only and finding already formed locations such as building or parks as opposed to creating a particular setting in the studio. The use of anyone that can act also contributed to this. An example of this would be the film Bicycle Thieves where the character gets a job and arrives there in a bicycle as his means of transport, which gets stolen in the process on his first day (Campora, 22). This movie was filmed in the streets with amateur actors using basic filming equipment.
On the other hand, there is also the issue of Formalism. This occurs when directors of the film do not want to portray reality in the films but rather instill their personal preferences to the film itself (Moeller, 94). They are more of the fantasy aspect of things where certain images or scenes are exaggerated to emphasize on the act done. The addition of many special effects occurs in this form of directorship so as to make the movie interesting or seem like a dream. An example of this is the movie ‘A Trip to the Moon’ where the moon was rather not the usual moon but it had special additives to it to make it look funny and amusing (Campora, 22). These types of films have a dream-like the aspect of them where they actually things are not paid attention to but rather blown out of proportion with the aim of creating humor in the whole thing. The filming is in most cases extremely difficult, and it tends to draw attention away from the actors of the story-line and instead focuses on the creation of humor in it.
Classicism is another style that appears in between Realism and Formalism. This form of style focuses mainly on the story-line and how the story progresses at large (Moeller, 94). Its aim is to tell about the event as clear and as precise as possible where the characters feeling and the whole atmosphere of the story captures the audience. In other words, they want the viewers to feel the emotion of the characters as if they were true events happening but also not to turn your attention to the graphics of the film. The Classicism-style focuses more on the reality of issues which will also use mild special effects but not such that they do not project reality to the atmosphere and emotion of the story (Moeller, 94). An example of a Classicism story is ‘The Great Train Robbery’.
There are however mixtures of these styles in movies where there is Realism, Formalism, and Classicism. These are only included in the making of the film but not to the storyline or subject of it. It is possible to have a true story that has formalistic attributes to it or a realistic movie with a certain character such as space creatures.
Other examples include films like Spinal Tap where the actors pose to be in a rock band but in actual sense, the movie is shot in the form of a documentary. This could also be categorized in the realism level. A combination of both realistic and Classicism effect is the movie ‘Captain Phillips’ where this movie was well assembled and filmed in such a way that it looked real that one would assume someone with a camera just happened to be present and filmed it. Classicism examples include the fiction/fantasy film called ‘The Empire Strikes Back.’ In this movie, the whole story was taking place on a foreign planet with all the effects put into it, but the movie itself had a realistic feel to it in such a way, one could feel the tension that the actor was facing at that time
Cinema Style & Terminology
Cinema style and terminologies refer to the cinematic language of how things are called and how words are used as well to describe certain activities while in the process of creation and making of the film (Inter Gibbs, 65). Below is a list of some terminologies with their meanings used in movie production.
This refers to a film that has been watched by many people and liked year after year from the day it was aired to it being available in stores for sale.
This is the climax of the movie with a specific scene that is expected to make the movie sell. It is a scene that is expected to give the viewers a sense of worth for their money (Ollier, 45).
This is the part in a movie where an actor uses soliloquy to express themselves without another actor coming into the scene. It is an inspirational speech in most cases.
This is a term used to describe a child actor who is not yet in the teenage stage yet.
the transformation of one digital image into another with computer animation.
This word is used to describe certain frequent elements that appear in the film be it and object, word of phrase or even a symbol. A motif basically point out the theme of the movie so as for the viewer not to forget why the movie is called the way it is.
This refers to the duration of the film with a series of picture that manipulate motions or movement mainly during an actor’s reflection of moments in the movie.
motivated and unmotivated lighting
This is lighting done naturally when a film is being shot and these could refer to the moon, sum, a lamp post floodlights e.t.c. These are usually assumed to be part of the scene.
This is a specific genre in films whereby there is frequent use of music and song in sync with acting. It is mostly used when a specific point wants to be put across.
Silence in the part of a movie. No sound is projected.
This is the part of the movie where a person tells the story with the aim of giving information to the viewers. The person telling the story is never seen but in most cases the actor plays as him (Inter Gibbs, 65).
This is the sequence creation of a movie where the person telling the story provides the information of how the film will progress. These films usually have a beginning, middle and an end.
This mainly refers to films made with sound that has not been synchronized yet but will be included later at the editing point.
This is a type of film that focuses on the past life of a character in most cases the innocent life of the protagonist of the story.
This is the making of a film through the adaptation of a novel.
This is a scene that is expected to be acted in a particular type of movie. For example in the romance genre, romantic scenes must be played.
off or offstage
This is the activity that happens off the stage and it mostly comprises of funny clips of the actors during the film making especially making mistakes
Mise en Scène
This is a term used in movie production to emphasize almost everything going onto a single shot (Aumont, 19). These are the framing of the shot, to the movement of the cameras as well as the characters. In general the environment of that one single shot is emphasized. Mise-en-scène is also known as the emphasis of space in a particular shot. This space is basically surrounded by the frame of the movie as a whole and how it comes out is what the camera has been set to perform. This is a unique kind of movie style used in filming as it gives the illusion of a large area or a lot of space. The movie ‘Travelling Players’ is a classic example of this king of technique used. It is about a number of people walking down the street in that single particular shot and time itself moves backwards and they walk forward (Aumont, 19).
Another classic example is in the movie grand Illusion filmed in 1937 (Aumont, 19). This is a movie about the First World War whereby the soldiers receive boxes of clothes in it but the knowledge of whether the clothes are for males alone is not known. One of the men pulls out a cloth from one of the boxes and wears it without knowing its female clothing. The cameras are the focused on the men staring with shock and portraying silence as they stare at their mate. The movement of the camera portrays a sense of space in the shot emphasizing the shock in the men’s reaction and also the space the men give expresses their confusion to the unexpected appearance of a man dressed in women clothing (Bate, 87). Supposing the film maker took the scene from a face to face perspective, the whole meaning of the reaction would have been entirely different. The reaction would be rather void and creating no emotion in the whole scene. The whole scene points out the natural reaction of a human being, in this case disbelief and the creation on space in a shot makes it so. It also helps the audience understand the reason for the reaction so as to help them relate with it.
On the other hand, the editing aspect of a movie is as a result of creating a narrative of the movie as a whole with the aim of making the filming process less tedious. It is also done to create a certain rhythm to the picture as well as determine the scenes that are relevant to the ones that must be cut from the set (Bate, 87). The Mise-en-scene styles, somehow slows down the rate of production. With its aspect of creating space within a particular set, it directs the audience to the particular scene itself. Certain details such as lighting and the whole creativity of the shot itself are mostly focused upon. Systematic acting as well as shooting of the camera is obtained if the take is of a lengthy type. This means that the actors must act the whole set due to the fact that one cannot cut. If an error occurs in the set, the whole shot will have to be re-done. It is also economically expensive to take such shots but they are however done due to the demand made by the viewers (Bate, 87). To avoid confusion of the particular scene, editing has to be made so as to avoid the viewer to try and figure out the movements of the camera as well as the actor. This is why editing is important and emphasized in film production.
It is normal for a film to use multiple shots but editing and cutting some parts is important due to the fact that each act portrays a different and special event or relationship. It could be that the classical manner of filming is made to project step by step with the aim of guiding the viewer through the narrative. The early films were manually done, to the point where the viewers had to be paused so that they analyze the spaces and the narrative.
Mise en Scène 2
There are other different aspects of the mise-en-scene. The mise-en-scene is basically obtained by the involvement of many professionals contributing to the shot itself. It can however be said to be a production atmosphere where the director is the boss and have various expectations and orders. It is important to understand the requests of a director regardless of the different responsibilities of the various professionals involved. Despite their different departments they all have a strong impact in the mise-en-scene. All of the elements are also controlled by the director as he is the one who controls and oversees everything in the mise-en-scene (Monaco, 39). The director has a lot of authority in the production of the mise-en-scene piece that even before the shooting he is the one who sits down with the set designers, costume managers, artists and even the location managers to determine how the whole scene will look like. In most cases the whole point of the mise-en-scene is to provoke emotions of the whole film to the audience. An example of this would be the film ‘The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari’ a 1920 classic where the distorting of shapes is evoked to create specific scenery and to give the impression and emotions of horror (Monaco, 39). Another example is the movie ‘The Graduate’ which has been praised for its distinctive use of colorful visual design that influences the scenes tremendously (Monaco, 39). There are other important necessities that contribute to the making of the mise-en-scene shot. These are:
Set Design- This is the decorative part of the set being taken and how it is decorated to suit the whole atmosphere of the shot itself (Lewis, 139). It involves things such as furniture as well as design. This is where the director is especially specific to the necessities of what he wants in that particular set. The objects are placed in a special systematic manner on purpose to show the meaning of the scene. This aims to capture the audience to create some sense of meaning as well as evoking thoughts and emotions of the audience.
This is also where the production designer’s job is extremely important especially in the construction of the set. The production designer collaborates with the set designer as well as the art director to come up with a systematic approach of assembling those particular objects to create a specific meaning to the set itself (Lewis, 139). This is then reported to the director upon completion where they both sit together to determine whether it is fine of whether it is subject to correction before the filming begins.
Lighting- There are two different lighting techniques that provoke emotions tremendously. These are the low key lighting and high key lighting. These elements are used systematically by the director to portray his vision of the movie and how he wants it to look like. High key lighting is mostly used for comedies as well as romantic movies whereby the lighting is of some sort even with very few dark edges. The whole movie looks bright in these genres to create a dramatic atmosphere and effect.
Low key lighting on the other hand refers to certain genres such as horror and thriller movies whereby there is a mixture of bright lighting and dim lighting depending on the atmosphere of the set itself.
Costume- This is the most obvious characteristic of a movie and that is to dress the character of the story. This determines what kind of movie it will be and at what period the actor is characterizing.
Film Editing Styles and Techniques: Point of view, Time & Space in Cinema
Film editing occurs after a movie has been shot and is subject to corrections of specific sets that can be corrected as well as the systematic arrangement of the pictures shot to complete the whole movie (Davis, 174). This is where the editor in presented with raw footage of the movies and is expected to cut, include the selected shots in synchronization so as to create the final copy of the film. Film transitions are expected to be made by the editor and they comprise of one shot at a time depending on the mood of the story of the point in time of the story which in most cases are separated. It is very hard to notice the editor’s work when watching the movie especially when the audience is especially engrossed in the whole film. It is essential that the film editor know how to tell a story so as to be able to fit in the right images and sounds as well as music into the movie from the raw version to create a final version of the film. The editor is involved in a number of aspects of the movie whereby he/she can decide that the film needs to be re-written to fit the movie best. This creates a sense of logic in to the film including a continuous narration of the story as a whole which enables the audience to be in suspense in a more comfortable and easy way. Editing contributes a whole lot to narrative period as well as the timeline of narration (Davis, 174). Film makers utilize editing to express themselves and to sometimes let the audience know their work indirectly.
In order to understand editing, it is important to know the different terms and meanings that editors use. These are:
Graphic Match- These are use to connect two different scenes together for them to relate accordingly. This happens especially when ending a particular shot and introducing the next shot swiftly. The swift connection is what makes the movie flow in sequence easily and effectively but only with shots containing the same elements related with each other. An example of this can be seen in the movie ‘A Space Odyssey’ whereby a confused ape realized the evil behind technology when he discovers a dead animal and throws it in the air. The illusion of a thousand years passes by and flashbacks of bones cutting and a satellite in space just orbiting in space. This is to show how far technology has evolved in a series of pictures.
Rhythm- This is the arrangements of shots or pictures in relation to the rhythm pattern set and the music that is connected to the movie as a whole (Monaco, 39). In most cases the talking part is shadowed a little bit and the musical connection to the shots is projected more. In the movie ‘Bananas’ the music played aims to recall the Charlie Chaplin comedy show. This music is used to create humor in the whole shot as the hero beats the two villains from a train. The duration of the particular shot is contingent on the fast tempo of the piano in it.
This involves the introduction of a new character that is important to the whole scene to a particular environment in order to put into perspective to the audience. It is the very first couple of picture in the whole selection of the shot and this should have an effective and projective approach to the whole context of the story (Monaco, 39). They are either start with Bigger shots going down systematically to framing closer of that particular shot. An example of this is the film produced by Quentin Tarantino, ‘Inglorious Bastards’ that has an extremely extended shot that portrays the more rural part of France. The introduction of the dairy farmer follows with a medium shot who basically takes over the whole scene before one of the daughters of the farmer is introduced in the same medium shot before a close-up is introduced. To add to this, the whole story creates a kind of conflict when German vehicles are closely shot from the way the farmer and his daughter view it.
Reverse Shot- This refers to the multiple shots that are collected and edited together with the aim that the characters alternate so as to show the different sides of the conversation. Shoulder shots, alternating shot and angled shots are basically used to accomplish this perspective of film shots. One can see this from the movie Bad Santa where the shoulder shots are used to bring together two eye-line perspectives showing how the two characters are closely focused on each other. This kind of film shooting facilitates in being able to see how the expressions of the characters are portrayed while they either listen or speak. This creates an illusion of space being created whereby the actors are actually dominating the distance from the different points they stand in. shoulder shots keep the frame from being squeezed and shows ample distance from the standing points of the characters.
Eye-line Match- This occurs when the shot of a character looking at something gives a picture of exactly how he/she sees the object whereby the camera acts as the character’s eyes as a whole. In most cases the eye-line is never shown but instead the movement of the camera is used in position of the character’s eyes. Ann example of this would be the view of something from the left side to the right that would assume the characters sight of the situation and the manner at which he is viewing them. This is especially used to connect the character with the whole situation because the audience is basically able to see exactly what the character sees. It gives the audience a sense of feeling that they are the character for a moment there.
This can be seen in the movie ‘No country for Old Men’ where the first scene has about five eye-line matches in it brought systematically and lasts for only one minute. It contains movement from left to right portraying the character’s movement as he walks up to the dead body in the scene. This is also seen when he looks at the man’s face before picking his gun up and the briefcase full of money. This part if slightly zoomed to emphasize the importance of the scene and to also try to bring the character’s thoughts into motion. This makes the viewers has a sense characterization in the movie causing them to also experience what the character is going through as if they were there too.
The second shot portraying the character’s accident also has multiple eye-line matches in them. His occurs when the character drives the car and is looking at the road as he drives. Another eye-line match is when he looks at the rear view mirror and the angle at which he is looking at it. This gives the audience an idea of how he is viewing things before the unfortunate accident which makes the situation even more in a way. This shows that the producers of the movie wanted us to see what the character was going through in order for them to understand the difference between the hunter and the hunted.
Continuity editing- This is an editing skill that cuts two different perspectives together in the movie with the aim of making it seem uninterrupted. It also allows the same situation to be viewed in many angles and fills the scene without spoiling the actual time of the action faced in the movie. This can be seen in movies where a lot of action is happening at the same time and it seems confusing but yet exciting and interesting at the same time. This captures the audience’s attention getting engrossed in the happenings of the movie. Another example of this is in the movie ‘Rocky IV’ where there is a similar form of action and camera viewing. The camera basically remains at the same level and does not change much only with a few zooms in and out to show the intensity of the boxing fight and to bring a reality perspective of the movie and events in the movie.
Kinetics, The Moving Camera
One of the most effective tools for expression in filmmaking is the camera movement. It separates and changes the relationship between the camera frame and the subject being emphasized with the aim of arranging and determining the delivery of the information to the viewer (Dombroski, 164). The movement of the camera provides an illusion to the viewer by the narrative to give a perspective and understanding of the situation explained in the movie. Different aspects of movements done by the camera come into play. The height and angle of the movie, the distance as well as other aspects of camera movement are projected in a film. The camera movements are normally visible by the direction they give and the equipment used to achieve that particular movement (Dombroski, 164). It is evident that the equipment use to facilitate movement and camera motion continues to improve due to technology evolving rapidly.
Camera movement works in a number of ways and is used in facilitating extensive takes to portray continuous time and space. This basically follows objects in relation to the frame it is in and it may act separate to create or reduce space, witness certain events, create a certain perspective of the character, develop the theme of the movie as well as the direction that later on contribute to the series of effects fill in. Consistent and perfect camera movement which is maintained for extensive periods can be used effectively when editing or creating changes in narrative action within the shot itself. This creates a pattern across the whole sequence of the film. These kinds of shots are believed to have the potential of recording reality on camera than sequences formed during editing.
Types of Camera Movement
Panning and tilting are the two most important camera movements involved in the rotation of the camera when fixed on a stand. The essence of the pan is the movement of the camera from side to side looking from the right to the left. It is attached to a three legged stand and supported by the axle in such a way that the camera does not change panning of tilting but rather moves when attached. The style of Panning was introduced as a cinematic instrument with the surfacing of panoramas especially in documentaries that extended the perspective of a single location.
In the 1900s narrative films also began having signs of pans to portray space while tilts were used in relation to these pans to follow the characters in motion. This can be seen in the movie ‘The Great Train Robbery’ when the camera sifts to the left to follow the robbers as they try to escape (Plantinga, 120). The difference between a tracking shot and pan or a tilt is that a tracking shot spins the camera through space which can flip backwards or forwards sideways, diagonally or in a circular motion. A pan on the other hand gives the perspective of what one may see when standing still and rotating their head. This creates an impression of space as opposed to tracking shots which are produced with the camera put on rubber tires rolling on the ground to guide it during long takes (Plantinga, 120).
The Complexities of Motion Picture Sound
Sound was firstly introduced in the movie The Jazz Singer in 1927. Due to the basic technology advancement the very first sound was recorded from a phonograph disk which ran in mechanical sequence with the picture. There were issues with it which required constant attention to the system which made the picture and the soundtrack to be in sync with each other. In the 1930s, the phonograph disk improved the sound recording in variable density. This meant that the signal was what controlled the track depending on its width. These different types of tracks were used for in house activities that were not released. It was in 1941 where the version of Walt Disney’s ‘fantasia’ was produced but only as a road show performance where the technicians had complete control of the whole operation (Elder, 423). By the time the late 1940s approached, there were still some signs of noise in the phonographic soundtracks. As the years passed there were attempts to improving the phonographic disks but it was clear that the increase of their dynamic range had to be implemented as well. This required a higher level of sound to the variable density of the output variable area recording (Elder, 423). The attempt to add realism in stereophonic sound produced some challenges for the engineers. Recording mediums improved in the 1950s whereby wide screen pictures were introduced and the stereophonic sound was accomplished using magnetic tracks. Due to this, the movies seemed more realistic and exciting and this brought a new trend to theater entertainment. Three cameras and projector were introduced later on to produce wider pictures in theatres. This is when the movie ‘The Robe’ was introduced in big screen format by Fox (Elder, 423).
By the time the 1960s and 1970 approached, the 70mm 6-track magnetic sound and 35mm cinema scope proved to be the best at that time. A larger percentage of the prints were produced without any magnetic tracks. About 10 percent of the magnetic tracks were stereo. This was because adding more magnetic stripes as well as recording four tracks proved to be expensive and increasing the cost from 50 percent to 70 percent. Another reason was that the higher quality magnetic sounds required consistent maintenance which proved to be costly for the producers (McGee, 61). Because of the cost concerns, engineers were forced to observe them closer especially at the optical sound and to determine whether they could produce stereo sound without the additional magnetic stripes.
By the time the 1980s approached, there was high interest in the development of digital sound especially on motion picture. This interest rose at a great level especially because of the availability to the consumer owning compact audio disks (McGee, 61). Due to the high audio quality, the digital recording devices rapidly replace tape as well as long play phonograph. By the time the 1990s approached, Cinema Digital Sound for films was accomplished and it became a reality.
Theater vs. Movies Setting, Décor and Costumes, The Film Director
In the 50s, the French Cinema association emphasized on the auteur theory and made it popular so as to portray the director’s ego and works of the movie as a whole. The quality and the effective use of the mise-en-scene was the competition of who was dominant in that style of filming. The two comparisons that were made at that time was between the theater and movie setting and how the director features in them respectively (Journal of the Smpte. Scarsdale, N.Y, 24).
On stage the role of the director is portray in the artistic nature of the play itself. He formulates patterns as well as the necessary gestures for the actor and all these elements follow the whole language of the script. The screen directors play a dominant role on the preparation of the movie but unlike a stage director he basically controls everything that has to do with the finishing of the movie
Films portray messages through the motion of images and it is the director who decides the choice of shots to be taken, the angles, effects, camera movements as well as the editing of the movie and other important aspects of the film production. When it comes to the handling of the stage in-terms of the time and space, the stage is the realistic point of the production as it is performed live while the cinema production is more of a formalist approach (Journal of the Smpte. Scarsdale, N.Y, 24).
When it comes to the role of the spectator in both the theater and movies productions, the theater is mainly considered a writer’s space due to the fact that the theater is more of a specialized language. The meanings are mostly found in the words spoken. Movies on the other hand are viewed as visual art whereby the director’s creations are brought forth through the images. It is focused more on the photography point of view and anything that can be photographed.
The advantages of the cinema is that it is a well known situation for dealing with relationships between people and nature while in the theater sense, it is more of establishing a positive opinion with the audience as well as interacting with them and getting them involved in the play (Ried,18). Another observation is that the distance between the audience and the stage remains the same therefore it is subject to only one environment while in the movie it is different as the environment is subject to change.
In terms of the settings and décor as well as the ideology of costumes, both production mediums use action as a basic means of communication and the things people do portray a major sense of meaning (Ried, 18). There is also a close connection between theater and movies where both can collaborate to create one whole picture. Both mediums bring forth the art of social communication shown in everyday life although movies are not recording of plays. They are totally different from each other. Movies have more options and unlimited resources at their disposal.
In terms of the time in the theater to the movies, theater time is more controlled and specific than movies. The main construction of theater performance is the scene itself. The main construction of a movie however is the shot which has duration of about 10 to 15 seconds so as to shorten the time and add more shots to it. The amount of time it takes to add a dramatic scene is basically the same to the length of time.
The main importance of a story is how the character impersonates it through the artistic vision of the producer. What matters in the setting is the presentation of the character at the beginning in terms of his appearance, social status, interests, lifestyle, habits as well as his personality. The sets must always be in relation to the action.
Narratology is written with the aim of understanding the title of a specific story. This is not meant for beginners but rather a more advanced audience who understand the principles and fiction presented in a rather creative manner. The Introduction genre can be defined by the way it addresses beginners and the path it follows in the construction of its matter of subject. Some introductions have a double intention as they are more concerned with the basics of discipline as much as well as the understanding of the reader. These normally have a profound way in combining theory with practice so as to understand a given narrative. Classical introductions in most cases project a thorough understanding of narratology as a multiple research medium which creates a number of narratologies (Meister, 195).
There are many available introductions to narratology that have the same features. These can be found in particular narrative genres found in books or short stories as well as novels which provoke analysis, cultural and literary studies which are includes in major narratives (Meister,195). There is undoubtedly a large variety of information concerning narratology through the communication medium as multiple parts of it are organized along the lines of an introduction.
In addition to this, print production portrays the manner at which applications have changed significantly in the past. In order to understand this, it is important to understand the recent changes in narratology (Alber, 216). In the 70s, classical narratology explained that the reading of a specific text was put accordingly in categories and the exact structure in it of which it can be used to the fullness of its ability when including a theory in it. The introduction formed in the 80s would not correspond to that type of thinking as the structural analysis had become a necessity for other practices found in different situations.
These called for different theories which were basically put through cultural studies, gender studies as well as media studies. Applied narratology on the other hand lies in more recent publications that teach on how narratology can be utilized correctly and properly. This means that the variety of introductions can be divided so as to help with the categories and determine whether the point is in the literary or non- literary contexts as well as whether the individual is led to critic using theoretical arguments or theories in a narratological sense (Alber,216).
Even though the possibilities of this argument create insight, the change in genre has evolved and changed over the years and still comes as a surprise. This means that the disciplinary contexts have influenced different types of analysis which include a few classical introductions that relate to narratology and later on paint their role of applied narratology. Looking at the perspective of the reader, the recent introductions of narratology are aimed towards different kinds of audiences whether beginners or scholars. It is evident that the narratology aspect on writing has changed as the more contemporary narratology tends to emphasize more on a diversity of situations that have very little communication with each other. This means that one can discuss the fiction in politics as well as gender and media all in the same plain. The different approaches to narratology have one thing in common and that is the fact that they both agree on the position that no single research explains all the views of narratives but rather one needs to search for it.
The Screenwriter, Literary Adaptation, the Screenplay, Point of view
It is said that third of all the films made were depicted from novels and used to create a visual perspective of the book as a whole. Almost all of the classic writings studies in schools as well as higher level education have mostly been adopted by movies (Snyder, 8). This does not mean that the screenplay is depicted exactly from the novel and a scene if created. It is often known that the best way to know the character of an individual is not by what they say but rather by what the thinking and what is said about them in the narration of the story.
The narrator’s role is to give the whole overview and meaning of what one reads through his point of view. An example of this would be a story about the life of the character growing up, whereby the story is much different when one hears it from the person themselves as opposed to the narrator. In movies however the narrator is not present. In some cases, the narrator’s point of view is kept through the use of what is known as a voice over but mostly the director and the rest of the production team have to rely on other tools of film to make the production as described in the book (Snyder, 8).
This is seen from the opening of the movie ‘A Death in the Family’ where the author dedicates six pages just to describe the little boy and how he feels when walking home with his father and enjoying himself as he grows up to be trusted, loved and safe (Karetnikova, 94). This becomes a very short scene in the camera that shows the two characters walking in content with each other talking about locusts and sharing things with each other. The same feelings are brought forth when the same information is given.
The main characteristics that differs books from films are the visual images that give us the perspective of the writer, while the written words perform this function in an indirect manner.
A simple narration of a chair will required an individual to visualize it while actually looking at a picture of a chair does not. A movie is more of an experience not counting the verbal language used as there is motion and color as well as sound included in it. With these aspects, it is still limited and this is because there are no time restrictions in a novel meaning that the events in the novel are not compressed as they are in the movie. Another difference is the fact that the novel is managed and controlled by one person while the making of a film needs a collection of people to realize it. This makes the film lack the freedom a novel has to imagine the character as they are explained in the book (Karetnikova, 94).
Three reasons distinguish the reasons why a film maker or script writer makes major changes when trying to project the story of a particular novel. One is the fact that film and items of literature have different tools in terms of production and thus a script writer has to change the whole medium and manipulate the whole story to suit the movie. An example of this is, in a novel a new chapter can take one to a whole different point in time whereas in a movie the same if projected only that the time stays the same and this is created by the flashbacks of the character in the movie. This is seen in the movie ‘Oliver Twist’ whereby the face of Oliver’s mother who passed away fades as the audience is introduced to the point in time when she was young (Karetnikova, 94). For other types of novels the translation from literature to screen play may prove to be difficult as the screen writers are subjected to take works that mostly more about ideas than the actual invents that produce drama in the whole story.
Eclecticism / Auteur & other Theories
Eclecticism is what best describes the works done by Baz Luhrmann who has achieved an immense success in the box office movies due to his view of music which up to date has provoked debate and criticism in the movie world (Lutze,44) . Despite this, his books he explains how music is an important part in provoking impact in storylines as well as the marketing aspect of the films. His Combination of the musical elements, namely his eclectic approach, is mainly inspired by the narrative as well as the addressing of the audience. The auteur theory was basically developed by the French and the later Adopted and written by English speaking academics and writers in the workings of creating and identifying consistent themes and styles (Lutze, 44).
Due to the consistency of what the auteur theory has, the proposal of this theory was more of a product of texts and imaginative patterns that portray an actual individual. This kind of work is in most cases not noticed in the strategy of the auteur theory all the credits were mostly directed to the individual director. This is where Baz Luhrmann is accomplished on the multiple styles and ideas he uses to construct his audio texts and his distinctive approach to eclecticism.
The creative nature of Luhrmann gives a distinctive vision in the borrowed items he chooses and in the manner at which they all function to contribute to the build-up of the track. The various items he chooses are very important as they contribute to his audiovisual texts and also the form of harmony in the style he chooses. His style in many ways is such that it goes beyond basic compilation taking a totally different approach.
Audio visuals are depicted directly from the image that naturally originates from it. They also however bring out the image so as to add value to the picture as a whole. Despite the type of music used in the picture Luhrmann approaches his pictures with a sense of familiarity and nostalgia in his work whereby it is put together beautifully with a distinctive eclectic use of music. Examples of movies with this style are ‘Strictly Ballroom’ and ‘William Shakespeare’s Romeo + Juliet’ whereby a collection of musical elements are used to portray the difference in style and approach especially instilled by Luhrmann in the production (Coady, 20).
The music components found in the movies work in synchronization and I sequence on the most important scenes thus challenging various forms and functions of music. Luhrmann’s unique style is found in his distinctive choices in the type of music the combination of his music to the various narratives and his version of the sampled music in his picture as well as his ability to market music (Coady, 20). The components that make up his audiovisual style was developed from Luhrmann’s cultural background, education and well as his vast experience both on screen and in theater.
(Aesthetic) realism, Film Theories Cont. . . .
The auteur theory has been viewed as a major creative instrument in the creativity of the motion of pictures. This was imitated in the American films in the 1940s and the aspect of the auteur theory was implemented majorly (Aitken, 194). This theory stated that the camera style portrayed by the director as well as the audio and visual aspects of the movie can be used to describe the director as an author as opposed to the writer of the screenplay. This is to say that the visual elements of the movie, lighting, scenes and the duration of the scenes relay a specific message about the film as a whole (Aitken, 194). It is also a belief to the strong believers of the auteur theory most successful films are as a result of the ingenious work of the director.
The main difference between other ways of viewing an individual and aesthetic realism is the fact that aesthetic realism portrays the character or individual to be the only most important thing in the world. This was viewed as one of the ways of viewing the world which was as a result of difficulty and misfortune. This theory in 1941 gave an overview saying that the most effective way of seeing the mind is to look at it as a continuous question. In the ethics perspective, aesthetic realism suggests that it begins with the nature of a human being and his responsibility to see everything whether living or none living (Schweppenha?user, 124). Where the meaning of this is seen depends of the individual and the evidence will show in his success. The basic success in contempt is when there is an acceptance that people have the right to see things and people as much as they want. This is why the aesthetic realism suggests that everything should be viewed in a critical manner.
The fact that most people feel there is no need for people to view objects and people as much as they please shows that this is the beginning of pure injustice and unfairness to the universe. Aesthetic realism sees this as satisfaction to ourselves and this has two meaning to it. The first one is viewing something as a poem or composition as something that can stand for the world and pleases the human mind through what it is. The aesthetic victory is the second one and this is the ability of a human being to depreciate anything that exists in its natural state. It also goes to explain that it is not hard or difficult at all to see the world as a mess as it has a tendency of giving a certain triumph to the individual. Aesthetic realism views all the things that are in reality such as one’s self and the oneness of opposites. Music also falls into the category as an instrument of creating oneness of motion and rest or even the difference in sameness and change (Schweppenha?user, 124). Aesthetic realism does not force people to like reality but however it encourages people to hope to like reality and do all they can to like it. This theory is useful in the personal sense as it is meant for personal development although it is always a seeing of the whole world (Schweppenha?user, 124).
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What is Classical Cinema?. (2022, Feb 21). Retrieved from https://essaylab.com/essays/what-is-classical-cinema
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