The Ethics of Human Cloning







Human cloning refers to an attempt to make a human being without following the naturally known ways of doing the same. It tries to create a human form, an issue that brings about some sense of controversy between the ones attempting the cloning process and the ones that believe in the supernatural ability of God to create the human being. The people who carry out human cloning use modern technology to do what God only can do, and as such, they attempt to outdo Him. They use the process of transferring the nucleus and treating the cells chemically so that it appears as if normal fertilization has already occurred. The controversy comes in because, in cloning, there is no conception as it is normally and morally acceptable.

Exercising cloning of human beings attracts mixed reactions from various dimensions. For instance, it is perceived that cloning is a way of dealing with infertility, and its results will enable infertile people to enjoy bringing up children produced genetically (Klotzko, 2001). This perception makes some people believe that any caring administration should do its best to make sure that it offers full support to human cloning. However, the morality and ethical standard for this process are put to the question, because of the fears that the children so produced may end up with deformities, while others may not even reach the birth stage. As such, the critics will argue that the process leads to deaths, and therefore it does more harm than good. More to that, owing to the fact that the power of creation is only in the hands of God, the critics of cloning will argue that human beings do not have powers to create.

Human cloning is illegal in all aspects, and more so unethical in the sense that it is only affordable to the members of the society who are financially able (Lauritzen, 2001). In as much as it assists the infertile people to get children, it is one-sided regarding the benefits. The reason is that the infertile but financially unstable people will not benefit. This explains the reason behind the political position that all forms of cloning should not be allowed to take place. In a move to make sure that the position remains, a number of acts of Parliament were passed to reinforce the position. To support their position, political leaders have it that cloning assumes that human beings can be spare parts for other human beings, or raw materials to make other people. As a result of that, their position is that human beings are only created and not manufactured, as cloning attempts to do.

Cloning practice was initially experimented on animals whereby the results were; few successful and numerous dying in the process (MacKinnon, 2000). Owing to the results of the research on animals, it is clear that the chances of the same happening to human beings are equally very high. As such, the people who are opposed to the process of human cloning hold to the position that the process is immoral, and it should be done away with as much as possible. The reasons behind this position are quite clear. First, it was tried with other mammals and was almost a failure. Secondly, the process attempts to equalize human beings to animals, thus lowering the dignity and the Godly nature in which people are created.

On the other hand, therapeutic cloning assists in the scientific research processes, which are aimed at finding cures to diseases that affect the human race (Waters & Turner, 2003). In the light of this, some people believe that certain kinds of cloning should be allowed to take place, such as therapeutic cloning. The position held is based on the assumption that once allowed, scientists will stand a better chance to research on various diseases, and eventually, get a cure for some or all of them. According to the supporters of therapeutic cloning, the process leads to solutions of medical issues and therefore it should be allowed to take place without any predicament. However, the critics are always in this position, where they argue that cloning is evil irrespective of the type and the assumed benefits.

Therapeutic cloning involves deriving the stem cells from an embryo, and this implies that the embryo must die (Waters & Turner). In this view, the killing of the embryo so as to obtain the cells for the purpose of cloning is a deliberate destruction of human life. This is the position held by the people who are strongly opposed to cloning since they argue that it is similar to abortion as far as the damage to the human race is concerned. According to them, the technology used ceases to be a useful tool and becomes a source of destruction to the human race and its dignity. For this reason, the people that oppose therapeutic cloning has it that it should never be allowed to take place at any given time. It is also a form of prejudice in disguise, in the sense that the perpetrators of the cloning exercise may appear to have a negative attitude about the people they use for their experiments. They may not consider them as human beings who are worth living. Cloners, according to those opposed to the practice, are killers indirectly, and that explains the reason behind them taking the position that therapeutic cloning is immoral.

The attempt to carry out cloning on human beings was fueled by the similar successful process on a sheep (McGee, 2002). The success on the animal sparked fear on the people who witnessed it, and they adopted the position that it is not possible to move away from human cloning. Despite the fact that all sorts of people, ranging from political to religious leaders have clearly opposed the attempts to do human cloning, it is clear that in the end, the vice fought against ends up securing its position in the same society that opposed it. For this reason, there are chances that even if the vice is opposed, it will one day be put to practice.

In the process of cloning, eggs are known to lose essential proteins that are responsible for the successful development of the embryo (Harris, 2004). This is a fact that makes some people hold the position that at some point, the cloning process in human beings may not be practically possible. It also explains the reason behind the many cases of death for the clones. This position is a stronghold for the opponents of cloning, and they use this fact as a foundation stone for their opposition. In this regard, they argue that the process is already a failed one, and therefore there is no need to have it proceeding and killing more people. It is, therefore, unethical as far as the opponents are concerned.

In any of the types of clones, and regardless of the successful attempts and the failed ones, cloning on human beings is immoral, unethical and dangerous (Alonso, 1999). The position is majorly held by the religious segment of opponents, and more specifically the Roman Catholic Church. According to them, it is not ethical to attempt to create a human being, over and above the natural way that God enabled man to use, that is, procreation. It should be done away with at all costs, and be avoided by any person who has respect for human life. The position of the church is that the couples that are not able to get children can use alternative means such as child adoption, and therefore cloning is not an acceptable alternative. One of the reasons that make the church hold the position is that the entire process lowers human dignity, and shows no respect for life.

Cloning further goes against the provisions of the law (Lester & Hefley). Since it endangers the life of the embryo from which the cell is obtained, it violates the law that provides for the right to life for all ages and races. For this reason, cloning is a dangerous and unlawful practice that should not be allowed to take place in any country that upholds the rule of law. This position is important especially for the opponents because it gives them a strong ground to base their argument in the event that they have a stand-off with the proponents of the same.

From the analysis of the positions held by different groups of people on cloning, I take the position that cloning is completely immoral, unethical and therefore illegal. To support this position, I will first acknowledge the fact that human beings are co-creators, but they were given the method to use in their work of continuing the creation. That is, they were only allowed to use the procreation method, and there is nowhere that shows that human beings were told to clone babies. As such, cloning is not a plan of God right from the beginning. This fact fuels my stand on this position.

Secondly, the entire process is time-consuming and very demanding as far as finances are concerned. It is estimable that several million dollars are spent to make one living cloned human being. The method is, therefore, uneconomical, since it uses a lot of money and takes a lot of time, yet produces results that are not proportional to the amount of resources spent. On top of that, it does not offer much help to the childless couples due to the low probability of success. When the needy cases are many, then it is evident that cloning is not the solution to the problem. The lower chances of success of a given cloning experiment show that the method does more harm than good.

Considering the death of the embryo as a precondition for getting the stem cell for cloning purposes, the process poses a threat to the human race in the sense that so many lives are lost to produce only one living human clone. The so produced clone is a duplicate of the original human being from which the cells were obtained, meaning that the clone is not a normal human being. Moreover, if allowed to take place and it be considered ethical, then the purpose of marriage will lose meaning among the people. As a result, the social set up of the affected people will be distorted, and there are chances that people will turn to cloning at the expense of procreation. The implication is that even the healthy couples will turn to cloning, and in the end, the entire society will be made up of clones.

Another reason as to why I hold on the position is that religious teachings tell that life is sacred, and human beings are created in the image and likeness of God Himself. As such, the human life is holy, and so God does not recognize clones as part of his creation. Bearing that fact in mind, it is important to acknowledge the fact that life comes from God, and therefore He determines the fate of the clone. Since it goes against the sanctity of the Creator, it is illegal and immoral. No human being should imitate God especially when it comes to His supernatural abilities.

It is clear that cloning will lead to loss of lives along the way, and this implies that the process violates the law. It is the law that provides the right to life for all human beings, irrespective of the age of the person. Therefore, the killing of the embryo to get the ingredients for the process lenders the entire process unlawful. As such, I would support the political leaders who come forward and use all ways and means to make sure such things as the human cloning have no room in the society. An event or action that threatens the wellbeing of the human race is illegal, and therefore it should be done away with completely. Cloners, in my opinion, are law breakers because they violate the provisions of the law. They appear to act above the law, and therefore the same law should take its course and deal with them accordingly.

Subsequently, nature is the one that dictates the existence of living things and not human beings. As such, there is the imminent challenge of bringing about pollution of its kind as a result of the cloning affair. Nature does not allow for the improvement of any kind on the structure of human beings, and this fact again lenders cloning an immoral and unethical practice. It lowers the dignity of the organisms that are the sources of the cells. The process will require the use of harmful substances and chemicals, and that will bring about a change in the composition of the natural ecosystem. It, therefore, means that anything related to cloning is destructive, and therefore it should stop once and for all. I, therefore, support strongly the acts of parliament that have since been passed to effect the ban on cloning and call upon all states across the globe to arise and pass laws that will assist in criminalizing the vice. More to that, the perpetrators of this process should face the full force of the law, since they are criminals in their making.

In conclusion, therefore, it is my position that human cloning is immoral, and beats the ethical standard in any society made up of people with a sound mind. It lowers the dignity of human life, and the sanctity put in it by the Creator. In addition to that, it violates the right to life for all people as provided for in the supreme law of any land, and therefore it should have no place in the society. In my opinion, there is no time that the vice will be legal, and it will never be ethical. All people of goodwill to themselves and the natural ecosystem should come to the forefront and join hands with the government authorities to make sure that human cloning is eliminated among the people, and those attempting to do it be discouraged in all acceptable means. This is the only time when the society will retain its true identity and dignity. I, therefore, stand the ground that it is illegal, immoral, and unethical to practice cloning on the human race. It is the duty of all people to safeguard their interests and those of the people close to them. Cloning is a threat, and all people should join hands and arise against it. I support the opponents of the dangerous and dehumanizing act.

Klotzko, J.A (2001) The Cloning Sourcebook. New York: Oxford University Press

Lauritzen, P, (2001) Cloning and the Future of Human Embryo Research. New York: Oxford University Press

MacKinnon, B (2000) Human Cloning: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy. Urbana: University of Illinois Press

Waters, B & Turner, R (2003) God and the Embryo: Religious Voices on Stem Cells and Cloning. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press
McGee, G (2002) The Human Cloning Debate. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Hills Books

Harris, J (2004) On Cloning. London: Routledge

Alonso, K (1999) Shall We Clone a Man? Genetic Engineering and the Issues of Life: A View from a Catholic Physician Scientist. Atlanta, GA: Allegro Press

Lester, L & Hefley, J (1998) Human Cloning: Playing God or Scientific Progress? Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell

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