Questions Related to Criminology, Security and Justice

Running Head: CRIMINOLOGY 1


Question 1: one of the common characteristic is that they are mainly directed to general people not the given criminal suspects or the defendants specifically. Secondly, they can all result to the given criminal prosecution or conviction. Also, they never require warrants for themselves or even the issue of probable cause. Lastly, their reasoning depends majorly on the issue of the balancing of the special needs from government all against the given inversion of the given individual privacy (Agra, 2015).
Question 2: (1) Balancing interests: where the hunt needs to adjust the administrations have to review against the intrusion of people’s protection. (2) Objective premise: Routine systems, not reasonable justification or even sensible suspicion, are required in exceptional needs seeks (Agra, 2015).
Question 3: Under the adjusting component, distinguish the three government intrigues that make the taking of inventories by law requirement officers sensible.- (1) To secure proprietors’ close to home property while they, or their vehicles and different holders, are in police care. (2) To ensure law implementation organizations against claims for the misfortune, obliteration, or robbery of proprietors’ property. (3) To ensure law requirement officers, kept suspects, and guilty party from the risk of bombs, weapons, and illicit medications that may be covered up in proprietors’ property (Agra, 2015).
Question 4: Recognize the target premise for a stock pursuit.- Objective premise: Routine techniques, not reasonable justification or even sensible suspicion, are required in extraordinary needs seeks (Morgan, 2012).
Question 5: Distinguish the fringe exemption and the uncommon need the administration parities at worldwide outskirts.- The outskirt special case says: seeks at universal fringes are sensible even without warrants are reasonable justification. The uncommon need of fringe inquiries is the privilege to control who and what comes into and leaves the nation (Morgan, 2012).
Question 6: The two extremely important needs of airport searches is the issue of safety for the travelers and the issue of security for the passengers. This helps to maintain a good environment in regards to safety and security of the travelers.
Question 7: The court approves such invasions in the privacy of the passengers because the issue of safety and the security of the given air travelers is important based on the given previous hijackings. Also, the given invasions to the privacy of the passengers apply to all of them equally and they are normally notified before the invasion is done (Morgan, 2012).
Question 8: Detainees and their cells, jail guests and representatives, detainees discharged on parole, probationers who could be however are not bolted up, and even litigants confined before they’re indicted all can be sought without warrants or reasonable justification. Need to look after wellbeing, security and order over individuals secured up prisons and penitentiaries, and probationers and parolees under state supervision in group exceed the essentially diminished desire of protection society gifts to individuals in care of crime (Morgan, 2012).
Question 9: Detainees are given the slaves of the given state. Individuals confined in prisons before indicted the US Supreme Ct decided that a correctional facility shares none of the traits of protection of a home, auto, office or inn room, and authority reconnaissance utilized. Unannounced pursuits of detainees and their cells for weapons and stash was not a hunt by any means.
Question 10: fourth Amend prohibition against irrational hunts does not have any significant bearing inside bounds of jail cell. Protection for detainees in their cells can’t be accommodated with the idea of imprisonment and necessities and target of reformatory establishments full-body strip, and body depression inquiries are fourth Am pursuits, however they’re sensible without either warrants or reasonable justification, if in the specific circumstance, the requirement for security, wellbeing, or order exceeds detainees’ sensible desire of security specifically conditions of the case (Morgan, 2012).
Question 11: Bell v Wolfish 1979 in the United States Supreme Court decided that it was sensible to require correctional facility prisoners anticipating trial to uncover their body cavities for visual investigation after each visit with a man from outside the correctional facility. Ct said keep up wellbeing and request in prison
Question 12: Incorporate a visual body pit seeks. Does exclude a physical body cavity look *search will be directed in an expert way in a region of security so seek can’t be seen by people not taking an interest in the pursuit. seeking officer will teach arrestee to: remove his/her garments – raise has her arms above head and pivot 360 degrees twist forward and run his/her hands through his/her hair – turn his/her head first to one side and after that to the right so look (Thomas, 2014).
Question 13: Each state and the federal government now have statutes that command DNA testing of all imprisoned criminals (State v Raines 2004). Courts have characterized the testing and putting away of DNA as fourth Amend. Ventures and seizures. US Supreme Ct hasn’t administered on sensibility of test can be discharged from information bank to government, state, and neighborhood law requirement officers upon a solicitation made in assistance of an official examination of any criminal offense. Can be taken by swabbing within criminals’ mouths for salivation and test (Thomas, 2014).
Question 14: probationers and the parolees likewise have reduced fourth revise rights, despite the fact that they’re not bolted up
Question 15:The U.S v. Knights case had the court rule about the given aspects of the searches and the seizures and the manner in which this can be handled.
Question 16: parolees have less fourth Amend. Desire of protection then probationers since parole is a built up variety of detainment of sentenced offenders. The pith of parole is discharge from jail, before the culmination of the sentence; on condition that detainee maintains certain tenets doing the parity of the sentence (Samson v California 2006)
Question 17: it is one of the special needs to protect the given public health and their safety. This is very important in all aspects.
Question 18: Teachers at NJ has got T. L. O. a 14 yr. old rookie, and a companion smoking cigarettes in young ladies’ washroom. Collaborator bad habit print requested to see her handbag, opened it, and found a pack of cigarettes. He likewise saw a pack of cigarette moving papers ordinarily used to smoke cannabis. He sought satchel all the more completely and discovered cannabis, a pipe, plastic sacks, a genuinely considerable amount of cash, and two letters that involved TLO in marijuana managing. Court needed to choose whether fourth Amen connected to seeks by school authorities (Thomas, 2014).
Question 19: in school managers are substitute guardians while understudies are in school. Examinations of understudies, their own assets, their lockers, and their autos amid school hours and exercises are inquiries.
Question 20: US Supreme Courtt found that irregular (without individualized suspicion) drug testing of all understudies willfully taking an interest in the school region’s athletic projects was sensible. As per school arrangement all understudies who wished to take an interest in school sports needed to sign a structure consenting to urinalysis for medications. Parental assent was additionally required. Competitors were tried toward the start of the season for their game. At that point once per week 10 percent of the groups were chosen aimlessly for follow-up testing the Court chose the reasonableness of medication testing strategy that connected to all understudies who took an interest in any extracurricular movement (Thomas, 2014).
Question 21: in the State v. Ellis facts include the issues of the opinions in which the court ruled regarding the case. One of them is the issue of the manner in which the case was handled.
Question 22: Collaborator bad habit print requested to see her handbag, opened it, and found a pack of cigarettes
Question 23: crisis or critical conditions that require quick consideration unique relationship” between the school or college and understudies school’s or court’s obligation to give the appropriate environment to learning (Thomas, 2014).
Question 24: cases that need testing the blood, breath and pee of some open utilize, as per administrator controls, without either warrants or individualized suspicion is sensible
Question 25: built up methods for recognizing and testing pregnant patients associated with medication use required that a chain of authority be taken after when acquiring and testing patients urine tests gave instruction and treatment referral to patients testing + contained police methodology and criteria for capturing patients who tried + endorsed prosecutions for medication offenses and/or kid disregard, contingent upon the phase of the respondent/s pregnancy (Ferguson v City of Charleston 2001)Ten state healing center patients captured under the strategy sued the clinic, the city of Charleston, the state police, and medicinal work force for harms endured by abusing their fourth Amend rights. US Sup Ct concurred with patients, over a solid contradiction (Thomas, 2014).

Agra, C. . (2015). Criminology, security and justice: Methodological and epistemological issues. Antwerpen Belgium: Maklu.
Morgan, R., Reiner, R., & Maguire, M. (2012). The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Thomas, A. N. (2014). Basic concepts in criminology: Handbook for law enforcement personnel (Police, Corrections and security officers).

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