Chemistry Lab: Nickel Research

Running Head: CHEMISTRY 1



Experiment 1
Nickel can be defined as the chemical element which is represented by the symbol Ni. This element has an atomic number of 28. In more details, it is a metal with silvery-white shiny color and tinge which is slightly golden. Nickle belongs to the transition metals. One of the properties of Nickel is that it is ductile and hard. However, the pure nickel is in powder form. This enables it to maximize the surface area of reaction thus a significant chemical activity of nickel. However, the large pieces of nickel can slow down the reaction with air under the normal conditions. This is because of the presence of an oxide layer formed on its surface thus preventing any further corrosion. This metal is magnetic at the room temperature. The curie temperature of nickel is 355 Celsius degrees. This implies that when in bulk form, the nickel is non-magnetic above the 355 degrees Celsius temperature.
Pre lab questions
The balanced equation for the reaction between NiCl2 (aq) and NaOH (aq) is as follows;
NiCl2 (aq) +NaOH (aq) Ni (OH) 2(s) +NaOH (aq). This equation refers to as a double replacement reaction, the cations and the anions of the 2 reactants switch the places.
The molar mass of NiCl2 is equal to 129.5994 g/mol. This compound is called Nickel (II) Chloride. Therefore, we convert the grams of NiCl2 to the moles; the molecular weight is thus given as; 58.6933+35.452 * 2 =129.5973
In the aqueous solution, the nickel will form a green stable hex aqua nickel (II) ion. Its chemical formula is {Ni (HH2O) 6}2+ (aq). For example, the NiCl2 (aq) can be used in the laboratory to show the aqueous chemistry of nickel (II) ion (Biswas et al, 2012, P.8000).
The reason to why suction filtration is preferred over gravity is because a pressure function is used in filtering thus offering an advantage of variable rate (Biswas et al, 2012, P. 7993). The suction filtration is very rapid and used in collecting the solid products that result from the crystallization, thus it is preferred in filtering salenH2.
The reason to why nickel (II) acetate is used in synthesis of Ni (salen), is because the synthesis of the Ni (salen) was enabled by initial transmetalation reaction from the arylboronic acid spinoffs. These derivatives yields the isolated nickel complexes (Zurowska et al, 2002, P. 1771).
Moreover, the reaction that led to synthesis of Ni (salen) by nickel (II) acetate is because the other salts of nickel were inadequate (Zurowska et al, 2002, P. 1771).
The CFSE, expressed in units of ?o, is an electron in the stable t2g. The subset is perceived as -2/5?.
The number of the absorption bands always depend on molecular geometry of complex metal. The d-d band’s intensities vary with geometry. Therefore, absorption bands in the complexes of octahedral are forbidden. However, for the transmissions of d-d in tetrahedral complexes are allowed and lead to strong absorption with sum range 200 to 5000. For the square planar, the energy levels of molecular orbits anti bonding that is derived from the square planer’s atomic d orbitals do occur in the order of x squares – y squared ?xy> z squared > xz, yz.
The calculation of the concentration is done by comparison method. When the calibration is done, a solution of 410nm can be used. In this case, y=0.978x. Therefore, at 0.5 absorbance, y=0.978x. The absorption= 0.978 concentration, thus Absorbance=0.432. Which then is given as 0.432=o.978 concentration. This then gives a concentration of 0.442M for the octahedral. For the square planar, the initial volume used= 3mL, therefore, 0.978/3=0.326*10mL= 3.26M. For the tetrahedral Ni (II), initial volume was 200, thus the concentration will be 0.978/200*10mL=0.0489M.
In conclusion, the properties of the electronic magnetic and spectral that were exhibited by the transition metal can be applied in sourcing the information concerning complex structure. The experiment was used to synthesize three complexes of nickel.
Experiment 5
In the field of chemistry, the coordination of complex is made up of central ion that is in normally metallic. It is called coordination center. It surrounds the array of bound ions which are in turn called ligands. Many of the metals with compounds are the coordination complexes. Metal complex is a coordination complex with a metal center atom.
Pre lab questions
When methylamine is mixed with salicaldehyde, the compound formed is 3(CH3)3NHCl.pdCl2 (ENDO et al, 2013, P. 355).
The methyl amine is used in excess so as to dissolve the remaining mixture that dissolves in the water (ENDO et al, 2013, P. 355).

Sodium acetate is used in the reaction to maintain ph. of the solution so as the reaction does not go in the reverse direction (Liu et al, 2012, P. 233).
The product is washed in water extensively so as to eliminate the impurities that are soluble in water.
In the solution of ph. 1, the product will not be formed as the reaction will go in reverse direction
In spectrochemical, ligands are classified as L and X, and further as the combination of the two. The two are bonded by covalent bonds (Liu et al, 2012, P. 233).
In conclusion, metal complex is as a result of the coordination complex with a metal with an atom at the center. The compound 3(CH3)3NHCl.pdCl2 is formed from the reaction of methylamine and salicaldehyde.
Experiment 4
From the experiment, results indicate that the NH3 is termed as the stronger field of the ligand (Alamuoye et al, 2014, P.3). This means that the energy goes up when the number n; which is the water molecules number goes down. On the other hand, Cu (H2O) (NH3)52+ has less energy when compared to Cu (H2O) 2(NH3)42+.

Exp 4
Alamuoye, A.E. and Nwabueze, J.N., 2014. Synthesis and characterization of the complexes of acetone succinyldihydrazone and fufuraldehydesuccinyldihydrazone with Ni (II) sulphate and acetate. Int. J. Inorg. Bioinorg. Chem, 4, pp.1-4.

Exp 1
Biswas, A., Das, L.K., Drew, M.G., Aromí, G., Gamez, P. and Ghosh, A., 2012. Synthesis, crystal structures, magnetic properties and catecholase activity of double phenoxido-bridged penta-coordinated dinuclear nickel (II) complexes derived from reduced Schiff-base ligands: mechanistic inference of catecholase activity. Inorganic chemistry, 51(15), pp.7993-8001.
Zurowska, B., Mrozinski, J., Julve, M., Lloret, F., Maslejova, A., & Sawka-Dobrowolska, W. (2002). Structural, spectral, and magnetic properties of end-to-end di-?-thiocyanato- bridged polymeric complexes of Ni (II) and Co (II). X-ray crystal structure of di-?- thiocyanatobis (imidazole) nickel (II).Inorganic chemistry, 41(7), 1771-1777.

Exp 5
ENDO, M., YOSHIKAWA, E., NEMOTO, S., TAKAHASHI, Y., SAKAI, K., MIZUGUCHI, H., SASAKI, A., SUGAWARA, K., SATO, K. and IHARA, T., 2013. Simple and rapid determination of boron in the wastewater with azomethine H using accelerating effect of ammonium ion. Journal of Water and Environment Technology, 11(4), pp.355-365.
Liu, M., Deng, J., Lai, C., Chen, Q., Zhao, Q., Zhang, Y., Li, H. and Yao, S., 2012. Synthesis, characterization of conjugated oligo-phenylene-ethynylenes and their supramolecular interaction with ?-cyclodextrin for salicylaldehyde detection. Talanta, 100, pp.229-238.

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